Of crucial importance in the study of the Indo-Iranians' history in the period before writing is a comparison of linguistic and archaeological data. Common terms pertaining to the productive economy and metallurgy, horse-breeding, the cult of the horse and wheel vehicles, which are found in Indo-Iranian and other Indo-European languages, indicate that during the Aeneolithic the Indo-European community was still preserved on the territory embracing areas of advanced horse-breeding and the cult of the horse. According to archaeological data, these areas comprise the South-Russian steppe, where the horse was domesticated in the 4th millennium BC and the cult of the horse and horse sacrifices were practiced at the time. The terminus post quem of the disintegration of the Indo-European community was the period of the spread of wheel vehicles in the Old World: according to archaeological data, the 3rd millennium B.C. The terminus ante quem of the branching off of the Proto-Indo-Aryans fell in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC: according to literary sources, the period concurrent with the appearance of Aryan horse-breeders in the Near East. Notable proximity between the economic types, the social organization patterns and the religious-mythological systems of the Indo-Aryans, Iranians and Saka-Scythians, reconstructed from linguistic sources, indicates that, despite the different historical destinies of these peoples, the problem of the origin of the Indo-Iranians can be resolved only if due account is taken of the origin of each of these ethnic groups.?When reconstructing the peoples' ethnic history in the period before writing, it is important to ascertain the archaeological traces of various types of migration and to evolve criteria of the ethnic attribution of archaeological cultures. Four such criteria are examined.
A comparison of results obtained by various means gives sufficient scientific support to the hypothesis of the Indo-Iranian attribution of the timber-grave - Andronovo tribes.
In determining the routes followed by the Indo-Iranians as they migrated away from their original homeland, precedence is taken by the data reflecting their spiritual culture, and not by the characteristics of their ware and similar characteristics.
Welcome to the First Issue! | Sheba@Saba-Trading.com: A Yemeni Trading Link Three Thousand Years Old | The Origin of Chess and the Silk Road | The Mongols and the Silk Road | Age of Mongolian Empire: A Bibliographical Essay | Lecture Summary:"Genesis of the Indo-Iranians: Archaeological and Linguistic Aspects" | Letters