Note to readers: Beginning with this issue, the online version of The Silk Road will be posted in pdf format linked from a contents page containing short summaries of each article. Should you need to install the Adobe Acrobat reader (free), which is necessary to read pdf files, click here.

For the full pdf text of The Silk Road, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Summer 2006), click here.

From the Editor 1
Boris Il’ich Marshak, 1933-2006, by Daniel Waugh 4
Remembering the distinguished archaeologist who spent his career excavating Panjikent and writing about Sogdian culture.
The Rock Art of Mongolia, by Esther Jacobson-Tepfer 5
An overview of the pictographs and especially the petroglyphs which are so abundant in the Altai Mountains of western Mongolia and other regions of Central Asia. The author discusses the significance of the art for our understanding of the prehistoric inhabitants of the region, new discoveries and projects to record this rich legacy, and the challenges of preservation.
The Origins of the Great Wall, by Nicola di Cosmo 14
A reexamination of ideas and evidence about the origins and purpose of the Great Wall, which has traditionally been considered a bulwark defending peaceful, sedentary China against the depredations of aggressive nomads. The author argues that there is little evidence to support this interpretation; at its earliest stages, the Wall was erected far to the north as part of a strategy to enclose territories acquired by Chinese expansion into the steppe region.
Archaeological Investigations of Xiongnu Sites in the Tamir River Valley: Results of the 2005 Joint American-Mongolian Expedition to Tamiryn Ulaan Khoshuu, Ogii nuur, Arkhangai aimag, Mongolia,
by David E. Purcell and Kimberly C. Spurr 20
An extended preliminary report on results of the expedition co-sponsored by the Silkroad Foundation and the Mongolian National University. The report describes the methods used during the excavation, provides an overview of the finds in the Xiongnu Cemetery at the Tamir 1 site, and details the study of the Tamir 2 settlement site, the details of whose history remain mysterious. In conclusion, the report suggests methodological improvements that might be implemented in future work at these sites.
The Challenges of Preserving Evidence of Chinese Lacquerware in Xiongnu Graves,
by Daniel Waugh 32
A summary of the finds of Chinese lacquerware in the graves at the Tamir 1 Cemetery and a discussion of the challenges of preservation if such abundant evidence is to be available for further study.
The Date of the TLV Mirrors from the Xiongnu Tombs, by Guolong Lai 37
Analysis of the complete and fragmentary Han bronze mirrors, found respectively in Graves No. 100 and No. 109 at the Tamir 1 Cemetery site in 2005. The author discusses the difficulty of dating Han bronze mirrors, given the existence of many forgeries and the absence of evidence concerning the provenance and dating of numerous examples that have been published. The evidence here for dating the Tamir mirrors to ca. First Century CE is based on analogies with archaeologically documented specimens.
Foreign Tribes in the Xiongnu Confederation, by Zagd Batsaikhan 45
Discussion of the multi-ethnic nature of the Xiongnu Confederation, suggesting that certain europoid groups such as the Wusun and Huzi may have been particularly important. It is possible that the Tamir graves excavated in the summer of 2005 are to be associated in part with Wusun, enlisted by the Xiongnu because of their expertise in agriculture.
Investigation of a Xiongnu Royal Tomb Complex in the Tsaraam Valley,
by Sergei S. Miniaev and L. M. Sakharovskaia 47
Description of the excavations at an important Xiongnu burial site in the Tsaraam Valley in Russian Buriatia, just north of the border with Mongolia. One of the graves has yielded a rich store of artifacts suggesting that it may contain a royal burial. The article details the structure of Tomb No. 7 and summarizes some of the more interesting finds.
Archaeology of the Mongolian Period: A Brief Introduction,
by D. Tumen, D. Navaan and M. Erdene 51
An overview of the recent work by the Department of Antrhopology and Archaeology at the Mongolian National University to survey and begin to excavate sites connected with the period of the Mongol Empire. Of particular interest are graves in Southeastern Mongolia which may be connected with the Chingisid royal line and the Onggut tribe.
Tombs of Chingisids Are Still Being Found... An Interview with Senior Archaeologist, Professor Dorjpagma Navaan 55
Professor Navaan discusses the exciting finds at Tavan Tolgoi in the summers of 2004 and 2005, the graves having yielded a rich array of gold objects and evidence for the spread of Buddhism amongst the Chingisids and their adherents in the 13th century.
The August Hermann Francke and Hans Kör Collection: Archaeological Finds from Khotan in the Munich State Museum of Ethnography,
by Ulf TODO 60
A summary description of an important but little-known collection of Khotan antiquities, which is in the process of being catalogued and described by the author.
Digital Collections: New Additions to Silk Road Seattle 63
Additions in summer 2006 to one of the major on-line resources for studying the Silk Roads.

For the full pdf text of The Silk Road, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Summer 2006), click here.