Annotated Bibliography of the History and Culture of Eastern Turkistan, Jungharia/Zungaria/Dzungaria, Chinese Central Asia, and Sinkiang/Xinjiang (for the 16th-20th centuries CE, excluding most travel narratives)

Nathan Light

Miami University. Oxford, Ohio



he study of Eastern Turkistan or Xinjiang has long been hampered by geographic, cultural and linguistic complexity and difficult access to publications, but over the past 500 years, an enormous range of documentary materials have accumulated. Many Europeans have explored and studied the region since 1850 but their publications are often appear only in major research libraries and special collections, and even the travel accounts rarely reach a wider audience. Eastern Turkistan’s scholarly and strategic importance has resulted in extensive publications in European and East Asian languages, particularly Russian, German, French, English, Chinese and Japanese. In addition, authors from the region and from other parts of the Islamic world have written literary, historiographic and religious works in Arabic, Persian and Turki, while Chinese travelers and colonial officials have also left extensive descriptions, particularly since the Manchu-Qing conquest in 1758 CE.

As a part of the “Silk Road,” this region has been the conduit for people, culture and commerce since before recorded history. Much of the region’s fame has arisen from the extensive archeological and documentary finds in the arid southern and eastern Xinjiang regions as well as nearby Dunhuang in Gansu, but Xinjiang’s populated oases and steppe continue to sustain its role as a region through which travelers and traders link East, Central and South Asian spiritual, literary and material cultures. Before the name Xinjiang was applied in 1884, the Chinese described it as Xiyu (“Western Regions”) or Huijiang (“Muslim territories”) while Central Asians called it Kashgaria, Altishahr or Yettishahr (6 or 7 cities) or Eastern Turkistan. All of these names have acquired political meanings in the present, with the Chinese government strongly attacking the term Eastern Turkistan as a sign of separatist and even terrorist leanings. The widespread Chinese concern about this term can be seen from a search at using Chinese characters for Dongtu (“Eastern Turkistan”) gives over one million hits, more than for either of the Chinese terms used for the Silk Road (Sizhouzhilu or Silu) and not far behind the 1.7 million hits for the name Xinjiang itself.

My goal in this bibliography is to introduce the study of the region through a classified list of the basic materials for study of culture and history over the past 500 years. The “Silk Road” is often described as in decline during this period, but in fact more recent Islamic and Mongol history is every bit as culturally rich and diverse as the preceding period, although the sources have not been as widely accessible to Western scholars. In compiling the present bibliography I found works remaining difficult to access: items such as publications by Pantusov from 1880-1910 are only slightly more available in research library collections than more recent publications from Xinjiang. Useful material exists in dissertations, obscure serial publications or unpublished conference papers. Not very different from the latter are the many rare manuscripts held in collections around the world, which fortunately are now slowly being edited and published, although with less fanfare than the Dunhuang and Tarim region texts from earlier periods. As these become more accessible these materials will considerably deepen our understanding of the history and culture of Eastern Turkistan: similar results can be seen arising from recent use of Manchu language sources for the study of Qing China and Turkic and Persian sources for Central Asia. This bibliography should improve access and help guide future library cataloging of items in Central Asian languages.

Outline of Contents
I) Online Databases and Information Sources (all periods)
II) Selected Historical Back-ground to 1500 CE and Regional Reference Works
III) Collected Works
IV) Serial publications
V) Bibliographies and Manuscript Descriptions
VI) Historical and Hagiographical Primary Sources
VII) Studies of History
VIII) World History, International Relations and Manchu-Junghar Interactions
IX) Western Explorers, Missionaries, and Consuls (excluding travel accounts not related to formal expeditions)
X) Basic Sources for Linguistics and Language Study
XI) Studies of Literature and Literary History
XII) Performing Arts, Ethno-musicology, Folklore, Folk Art, Architecture and Material Culture
XIII) Anthropology, Cultural Analysis, Ethnography, Ethnicity, Ethnogenesis
XIV) Religion: Islam, Khwâja Rule, Sufism, Shamanism
XV) Ecology, Economics, Geography, Pastoralism
XVI) Analyses of Social Policies, Politics, Strategic Issues and Current Events

I) Online Databases and Information Sources (all periods)

The following are the most comprehensive online sources for material on Xinjiang. My own bibliography is simply a list of the contents of the first 12 years of two important scholarly series in Xinjiang. The ODIAS and RIFIAS are likewise bibliographic sources. The Tôyô Bunko archive, IDP, ORIAS and Silk Road Seattle sites provide a wide ranger of important and hard-to-find materials directly online.

Bibliography of Uyghur language articles on history and literature by Nathan Light (lists contents of the series Shinjang Tarikh Materiyalliri (volumes 1-33, 1980-1992) and the journal Bulaq; Uyghur kilassik ädibiyati mäjmua’äsi (issues 1-41, 1980-1992). Bulaq consists of editions and analyses of works of Eastern Turki (Uyghur) literature and translations of works from Persian and Turkic languages. Most of these entries have also been entered into the ODIAS database.) <>.

Digital Archive of Tôyô Bunko Rare Books (35 books, 9062 pages from art historical and research publications from the past 150 years; high quality photos) <>.

IDP: International Dunhuang Project Database (Search from collections of texts and artifacts from sites throughout Chinese Central Asia by Manuscript, Photograph, Artifact, Catalogue, Painting, and geographically by Map.) <>.

ODIAS (Online Databases for Inner Asia Studies, with citations for articles, books and manuscripts) <>.

ORIAS Digitized books (Kashgar imprints from the Swedish Mission Press and Publications of China Inland Mission) <http://www.>.

RIFIAS: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies Online Library Catalog (A searchable library catalog of roughly 10,000 items available in the RIFIAS collection at Indiana University, Bloomington, along with a catalog of 400 RIFIAS publications.)< _Catalog.htm>.

Silk Road Seattle (research resources maintained under direction of Daniel C. Waugh) <>.

The Silk Road and Central Asia On the World Wide Web (links maintained by Daniel C. Waugh) <>.

II) Selected Historical Background and Reference for Central Eurasia and Prior to 1500 CE

These are the most important works for an overview understanding the region and for guiding further research.
Bartold, V. V. Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion. 3rd ed. H.A.R. Gibb and Tatiana Minorsky, trans. C.E. Bosworth, ed. London, Luzac & co., 1968. [Online at the ACLS history e-book project: <http://name.umdl.>]

Beckwith, Christopher. The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A history of the struggle for great power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Bregel, Yuri. An Historical Atlas of Central Asia. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2003.

Chavannes, Édouard. Documents sur Les Tou-Kiue (Turcs) occidentaux, recueillis et commentés, suivi de notes additionnelles. Paris: Librarie d’Amerique et d’Orient, 1903.

Clark, Larry. “Introduction to the Uyghur Civil Documents of East Turkestan (13th-14th Centuries).” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University, 1975.

Di Cosmo, Nicola, ed. Warfare in Inner Asian History: 500-1800. Leiden: Brill, 2002.

—. Ancient China and its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Eberhard, Wolfram. China und seine westlichen Nachbarn: Beitrag zur mittelalterlichen und neueren Geschichte Zentralasiens. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1978.

Elverskog, Johan. Uygur Buddhist literature. Turnhout: Brepols, 1997.

Golden, Peter. An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrasowitz, 1992.

Güzel, Hasan Celal, et al, eds. The Turks. 6 vols. Ankara: Yeni Türkiye, 2002. [Chronological collection of articles of varying scholarly depth and accuracy. First 3 volumes include articles on Central Asian Turkic peoples.]

Hamilton, James Russell. Les Ouïghours à l’époque des Cinq Dynasties d’après les documents chinois. Paris, 1955.

History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Paris: Unesco, 1992-. 5 vols. [An extensive publishing project including over 100 articles on culture, history, religions, society and technology of the region. Some of this material is online at <>.]

Han, Xiang. Qiuci shi ku. Ürümchi: Xinjiang Daxue chubanshe, 1990. [Extensive discussion of the Qiuci caves near Kucha, with many color plates.]

Hung, Chin-Fu. “China and The Nomads: Misconceptions in Western Historiography on Inner Asia.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 41/2 (1981): 597-628. [Critical review of Luc Kwanten’s history Imperial Nomads.]

Ji Dachun, ed. Xinjiang lishi cidian. Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chuban-she, 1993. [Dictionary of Xinjiang history.]

Kamberi, Dolkun. “A survey of Uyghur documents from Turpan and their importance for Asian and central Eurasian history.” Central Asian Survey, 18/3 (1999): 281-301.

Komaroff, Linda and Stefano Carboni. The legacy of Genghis Khan: courtly art and culture in western Asia, 1256-1353. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002. [Online selections in nicely-designed exhibit at: <>.]

Laut, Jens Peter. Der frühe türkische Buddhismus und seine literarischen Denkmäler. (Veröffentlichungen der Societas Uralo-Altaica, vol. 21). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986.

Lieu, Samuel N. C. Manichaeism in Central Asia and China. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

Lin Enxian. Tujue yanjiu. [Turk studies.] Taibei: Taiwan shangwu yingshuguan, 77 [1988].

Liu, Mau-Ts’ai. Die chinesischen Nachrichten zur Geschichte der Ost-Türken (T’u-Küe). 2 vols. Asiatische Forschungen, 10. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1958.

—. Kutscha und seine Beziehungen zu China von 2. Jh. v. bis zum 6. Jh. n. Chr., 2 vols. Asiatische Forschungen, 27. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1969.
Liu Weixin, ed. Xibei minzu cidian. Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chuban-she, 1998. [Dictionary of N.W. nationalities.]
Mackerras, Colin P. The Uighur Empire according to the T’ang Dynastic Histories: A Study in Sino-Uighur Relations 744-840. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1972. [Online publication of one of the two primary source texts in this book, at: <>.]
Mair, Victor, ed. The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Man, 1998.
Mallory, J. P. and Victor H. Mair. The Tarim Mummies, Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.

Mei Jianjun. Copper and Bronze Metallurgy in Late Prehistoric Xinjiang: Its Cultural Context and Relationship with Neighboring Regions. BAR International Series 865. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2000.

Rhie, Marylin M. Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia. 2 vols. in 3. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Rossabi, Morris, ed. China among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and its Neighbors, 10th-14th Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Roxburgh, David J. Turks: A Journey of a Thousand Years, 600-1600. London: Royal Academy Books, 2005.

Thomas, Frederick William. Tibetan literary texts and documents concerning Chinese Turkestan. 4 vols. London: The Royal Asiatic Society, 1935-1965

Whitfield, Susan and Ursula Sims-Williams, eds. The Silk Road: trade, travel, war and faith. London: British Library, 2004.

Yarshater, Ehsan, ed. Encyclopædia Iranica. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985-. [Also online at: <>.]

Zieme, Peter. Die Stabreimtexte der Uiguren von Turfan und Dunhuang. Studien zur alttürkischen Dichtung. Bibliotheca Orientalis Hungarica, 33. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1991.

III) Collected Works

The collections below represent significant research compilations. A number of volumes of articles in Russian and many in Chinese are also valuable but less accessible. The Starr and CEMOTI volumes are both primarily oriented towards analysis of international relations, development, politics and statistics rather than ethnographic study. The Benson and Svanberg volume is somewhat more concerned with cultural analysis.

Benson, Linda, and Ingvar Svanberg, eds. The Kazaks of China: essays on an ethnic minority. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1988. Contents:
L. Benson and I. Svanberg. “The Kazakhs in Xinjiang.”
Ingvar Svanberg. “The Nomadism of Orta Žüz Kazaks in Xinjiang, 1911-1949.”
L. Benson. “Osman Batur: The Kazak’s Golden Legend.”
Mark Kirchner. “The Language of the Kazaks from Xinjiang: A Text Sample.”
Thomas Hoppe. “Kazak Pastoralism in the Bogda Range.”

Cahiers d’études sur la Méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien (CEMOTI) 25: Les Ouïgours au vingtième siècle (1998).
Françoise Aubin. “L’arrière-plan historique du nationalisme ouïgour. Le Turkestan oriental des origines au XXème siècle.”
Dru C. Gladney. “Internal Colonialism and the Uyghur Nationality: Chinese Nationalism and Its Subaltern Subjects.”
Michel Jan. “L’intégration du Xinjiang dans l’ensemble chinois: vulnérabilité et sécurité.”
Artoush Kumul. “Témoignage - Le “séparatisme” ouïgour au XXème siècle: histoire et actualité.”
Ildiko Beller-Hann. “Work and Gender among Uighur Villagers in Southern Xinjiang.”
Gülzade Tanridagli. “Le roman historique, véhicule du nationalisme ouïgour.”
Cheripjan Nadirov. “La structure économique de la région autonome du Xinjiang ouïgour et sa place dans le système des relations sino-kazakhes.”
Hamide Khamraev. “La géopolitique du pétrole.”
Hegel Ishakov et Khadia Akhmedova. “Les migrations des Ouïgours vers l’Asie centrale ex-soviétique.”
Frédérique-Jeanne Besson. “Les Ouïgours hors du Turkestan oriental: de l’exil à la formation d’une diaspora.”

Starr, S. Frederick, ed. Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2004.
James A. Millward, Peter C. Perdue. “Political and Cultural History of the Xinjiang Region through the Late Nineteenth Century.”
James A. Millward, Nabijan Tursun. “Political History and Strategies of Control, 1884-1978.”
Dru C. Gladney. “The Chinese Program of Development and Control, 1978-2001.”
Yitzhak Shichor. “The Great Wall of Steel: Military and Strategy in Xinjiang.”
Calla Wiemer. “The Economy of Xinjiang.”
Linda Benson. “Education and Social Mobility among Minority Populations in Xinjiang.”
Sean R. Roberts. “A ‘Land of Borderlands’: Implications of Xinjiang’s Trans-border Interactions.”
Stanley W. Toops. “The Demography of Xinjiang” and “The Ecology of Xinjiang: A Focus on Water.”
Jay Dautcher. “Public Health and Social Pathologies in Xinjiang.”
Justin Rudelson, William Jankowiak. “Acculturation and Resistance: Xinjiang Identities in Flux.”
Graham E. Fuller, Jonathan N. Lipman. “Islam in Xinjiang.”
Gardner Bovingdon, Nabijan Tursun. “Contested Histories.”
Dru C. Gladney. “Responses to Chinese Rule: Patterns of Cooperation and Opposition.”
16-page “Bibliographic Guide to Xinjiang.”

IV) Serial publications

The following are the more important serials and periodicals devoted to the history and culture of Xinjiang published in China and suggest the immense range of new publishing that began in the 1980s. I have not listed most popularly-oriented publications, nor those that primarily express Chinese government or local and émigré dissident political perspectives.

Bulaq; Uyghur kilassik ädibiyati mäjmu’äsi. [Bulaq: Journal of Uyghur classical literature.] Ürümchi, 1980-. [Has published around 20,000 pages of articles and literary editions since inception.]
Miras; päsillik zhornal. [Heritage; quarterly journal. Published by the Junggo khälq eghiz ädibiyat-sän’ät tätqiqat jämiyiti Shinjang Uyghur aptonom rayonluq shöbisi; Uyghur tätqiqat ishkhanisi.] Ürümchi, 1983-. [Popularly-oriented journal about Uyghur literature, folklore, and folk art.]
Shinjang Dashösi ilmiy zhurnili. Pälsäpä-ijtima’i pän qismi. [Xinjiang University Scientific Journal. Philosophy and Social Science Section.] Ürümchi, 1980-.
Shinjang ijtima’i panlar tatqiqati. Xinjiang shehui kexueyuan xuebao. [Journal of the Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences.] Ürümchi, 1981-.
Shinjang mädäniyät; qosh ayliq universal ädäbiy zhurnal. [Xinjiang civilization; bi-monthly journal of universal literature. Popular journal with articles and literature by Uyghurs, apparently began publishing in Ürümchi in 1951.]
Shinjang Qirghiz adabiyati = Xinjiang Kirghiz literature. Ürümchi, 1981-.
Shinjang tarikh materiyalliri. [Xinjiang historical materials.] 1980-. [Irregular volumes of articles most of which also appear in Chinese versions in the series Xinjiang wenshi ziliao xuanji.]
Shinjang täzkirisi [Xinjiang annals]. 1983-. [Local histories are now also published in the multi-volume Shinjang omumii täzkirisi, beginning in 1996.]
Shinjang Tibbii Instituti ilmii zhurnili = Xinjiang yixueyuan xuebao = Acta Academiae Medicinae Xinjiang. Ürümchi, 1985-.
Tängritagh; qosh ayliq ädibiy zhurnal [Tangritagh; bi-monthly literary journal.] 1980s-. [Popular literary magazine published in Ürümchi.]
Tarim; ayliq ädäbiy zhurnal. [Tarim; monthly literary journal.] 1950-. [Contemporary literary compositions, translations and commentary.]
Uyghur khälq chöchäkliri. Ürümchi, 1979-. [At least 11 irregular volumes of folk tales.]
Uyghur khälq dastanliri. Ürümchi, 1981-. [At least 4 volumes of dastan prose and poetry narratives.]
Uyghur khälq nakhshiliri. Ürümchi, 1980-. At least 6 volumes of folk songs with musical transcriptions.]
Uyghur khälq qoshaqliri. Ürümchi, 1979-. [Folk quatrains with musical transcriptions.]
Xibei minzu yanjiu = Research in N.W. national minorities. [Academic journal published in Lanzhou.]
Xiyu yanjiu = The Western Regions Studies. Ürümchi, 1991-.
Zhongguo bianjiang shidi yanjiu; China’s borderland history and geography studies. Beijing, 1991-. [Another recently established journal.]

V) Bibliographies and Manuscript Descriptions

The most important primary sources for study of the past 500 years are Persian, Turkic, Manchu and Chinese manuscript and archival documents. The extensive Chinese sources have appeared in a number of facsimile editions and I list only a few of the research guides to them here. The other sources are only beginning to be systematically studied and published and access remains a problem. Although most have some deficiencies, the sources below are the best descriptions of the available primary and secondary source materials.

Abdurahman, Amina and Jin Yu-Ping. “Une vue d’ensemble des manuscrits tchagatay du Xinjiang.” In: La Mémoire et ses supports en Asie Centrale. Les Cahiers d’Asie centrale N°8. Vincent Fourniau, ed. Aix-en-Provence: Institut Français d’Etude sur l’Asie Centrale, 2000, pp. 35-62.

Bregel, Yuri. Bibliography of Islamic Central Asia. 3 vols. Bloomington, Indiana: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, 1995. [Classified bibliography of 30,500 books and articles on the history and culture of Central Asia (including Chinese Central Asia) published from the 17th century through 1988. All languages except East Asian.]

Chen Yanqi and Sasha. Xiyu yanjiu shumu. Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe, 1990. [Classified bibliography of 6734 Chinese, European, Russian and Japanese books on Central Asia and Xinjiang (known in Chinese as Xiyu or the Western Regions).]

Hamada Masami. “Research Trends in Xinjiang Studies.” In Research Trends in Modern Central Eurasian Studies (18th-20th Centuries ): A Selective and Critical Bibliography of Works Published between 1985 and 2000. Part 1. Stéphane A. Dudoignon and Komatsu Hisao, eds. Tokyo: The Toyo Bunko, 2003.

Hartmann, Martin. “Die osttürkischen Handschriften der Sammlung Hartmann.” Mitteilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen, 7 (1904): 1-21.

Hofman, H. F. Turkish literature. A bio-bibliographical survey. Section III. Moslim Central Asian Turkish literature. 6 volumes bound as 2. Utrecht: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1969. [Erudite, chatty and often obscure annotations on the authors and works of Central Asian Turkic manuscript literature.]

Hoppe, Thomas. Xinjiang-Arbeitsbibliographie II: Autonomes Gebiet Xinjiang der Uiguren, China (Naturbedingungen, Geschichte, Ethnien, Landnutzung); Xinjiang provisional bibliography II: Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China (natural conditions, history, ethnic groups, land use). Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1987. [Roughly 2000 items primarily in English, German, Russian, Chinese and Uyghur.]
Kaidarov, A. Uigurskii iazyk i literatura. Annotirovannyi biblio-graficheskii ukazatel’. [Uyghur Language and Literature. Biblio-graphic Index.] Tom 1. Alma-Ata: AN Kazakhskoi SSR, 1962.
Lin Enxian. Jindai Zhongguo bianjiang yanjiu lunzhu mulu. Taibei: National Chengchi University, Institute of China Border Area Studies, 75 [1986].
Liu Ge and Huang Xianyang. Xiyu shidi lunwen cailiao suoyin. Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe, 1988. [Classified bibliography of 8032 articles in Chinese about history, minorities, economy, culture, literature, language, geography and archeology of the “Western Regions.”]
Matsuura, S. “A bibliography of works on the Manchu and Sibo languages.” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Tôyô Bunko 38 (1980), p. 95-179. [Sibo or Xibe is the only form of Manchu that continues to be spoken and written in China.]
Muginov, Abdulladzhan Muginovich. Opisanie uigurskikh rukopisei Instituta Narodov Azii. [Description of Uyghur Manuscripts in the Institute of the Peoples of Asia.] Moscow: 1962. [Classifies a group of traditional manuscripts as “Uyghur” based on linguistic features, and time and place of composition, while ignoring other popular Turkic and Persian works found in Eastern Turkistan.]

Sawut, Torsunmuhämmät. Uyghur ädäbiyati tarikhi materiyallar katalogi. Ürümchi: Shinjang Dashö Därslik Bölümi, 1991. [A typescript volume listing 3541 books and articles about Uyghur literary history, organized by period and subject, and 665 manuscript titles held in eight collections in Ürümchi.]

Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayonluq Az Sanliq Millät Qädimki Äsärlirini Toplash, Rätläsh, Näshir Qilishni Pilanlash Rähbärlik Guruppa Ishkhanisi. Uyghur, Özbek, Tatar Qädimki äsärlär tizimliki. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988. [A catalogue of approximately 1500 Turkic, Persian and Arabic manuscripts and lithographs held in the Xinjiang libraries. All from the Islamic period and in Arabic script.]
Stary, Giovanni. Manchu Studies. An International Bibliography. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1990.
Umemura Hiroshi. Japanese studies on Inner Asian history, 1973-1983. Tokyo: Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, 1987. [Bibliography in Japanese and English; introductory article in English.]

Yuan Tongli. Shinkyô kenkyû bunken mokuroku, 1886-1962: Nichibunbon = Classified bibliography of Japanese books and articles concerning Sinkiang, 1886-1962. Tokyo: Shoei-Insatsu Co., 1962.

Zhongguo weiwuer lishi wenhua yanjiuhui. Weiwuer lishi wenhua yanjiu wenxian tilu. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe, 2000. [Geng Shimin (<>) cites this as a bibliography of 6980 entries on Uyghur history and culture but I find no other citation for this item.]

VI) Historical and Hagiographical Primary Sources

The following are the few editions and translations that have made local primary source documents and compositions available. These editions are of widely varying quality. I again avoid most of the Chinese local histories and gazeteers although these have been heavily used by Enoki, Fletcher, Hamada, Kim, Millward, and Saguchi. Kim’s endnotes are a comprehensive discussion on the different sources for 19th century history.
Alptekin, Isa Yusuf and M. Ali Tasçi. Esir Doghu Türkistan için: Isa Yusuf Alptekin’in mücadele hatiralari. Istanbul: Doghu Türkistan Nesriyat Merkezi, 1985. [Edited memoirs of an important East Turkistani leader.]
Baldick, Julian. Imaginary Muslims. London: Routledge, 1993. [A translation and epitome of a key hagiographic source for Eastern Turkistan. For details about the work and problems with this translation, see DeWeese, “The Tadhkira-i Bughra-khan…”.]

Chinggiznamä. Haji Nurhaji, ed. Kashgar: Qäshqär Uyghur Näsh-riyati, 1985. [Edited from a manuscript now held at the Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences, #00679. Matches the anonymous Târîkh-i Kâshgar (see below) but here ascribed to Molla Mersalih Kashqäri.]

Churâs, Shâh Mahmûd ibn Mirza Fazil. Khronika. Text, translation, notes, indices by O. F. Akimushkin. Moscow: Nauka, 1976. [Churâs wrote this Persian history, simply called Târîkh, in Kashgar in the seventeenth century, describing the cultural life and history of the court and its military encounters. It is composed as a continuation of the work of Mîrzâ Haydar.]

DeWeese, Devin. “The Tadhkira-i Bughra-khan and the ‘Uvaysi’ Sufis of Central Asia: Notes in Review of Imaginary Muslims.” Central Asiatic Journal 40:1 (1996): 87-127.

Di Cosmo, Nicola and Dalizhabu Bao. Manchu-Mongol relations on the eve of the Qing conquest: a documentary history. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

Gürsoy-Naskali, Emine, transl. and ed. Ashâbu’l-Kahf; A treatise in Eastern Turki. Helsinki: Suomalais-ugrilainen seura, 1985. [Valuable study of a tomb and pilgrimage site near Turfan where the story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus has become locally attached. Qurbân‘ali Khâlidî (see below) describes traveling to this site in his Târîkh-i jarîda-yi jadîda.]

Imbault-Huart, Camille. Recueil de documents sur l’Asie centrale. Paris: Leroux, 1881. [Translations from Chinese sources on 19th century rebellions in Eastern Turkistan.]

—. Le pays de Hami ou Khamil; description, histoire d’apres les auteurs chinois, Paris, E. Leroux, 1892.

Mîrzâ Haydar. A history of the Moghuls of central Asia; being the Tarikh-i-Rashidi of Mirza Muhammad Haidar, Dughlat. Edited, with commentary, notes, and map by N. Elias, translated by E. Denison Ross. London: Curzon, 1898. [Excerpts are available online at: <>.]
—. Mirza Haydar Dughlat’s Tarikh-i-Rashidi: a history of the khans of Moghulistan. English translation & annotation by W.M. Thackston Cambridge: Harvard University, Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, 1996.
—. Târîkh-i Rashîdî: târîkh-i khavânîn-i Mughûlistân; matn-i Fârsî. Cambridge: Dânishgâh-i Hârvârd, 1996. [Text of the original Persian version of the Târîkh-i Rashîdî.]

Molla Haji. Boghrakhanlar täzkirisi. Abdurehim Sabit, ed. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988. [Prepared from a 19th century manuscript in the complex body of hagiographical histories around Satuq Boghra Khan. See Baldick Imaginary Muslims and DeWeese, “The Tadhkira-i Bughra-khan…” for more information.]

Molla Ismätulla binni Molla Nemätulla Mojiz. Tävarikhi musiqiyyun. Änvär Baytur, Khämit Tomur, eds. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1982. [Facsimile, transcription, translation into modern Uyghur, and commentary of a 20 folio manuscript history of musicians, poets and singers, composed in 1854.]

Muhammad A’lam. Tadhkira-i Hajji Padishah Habib Allah va Rashidin Khan va Ya’qub Beg. Translation in “L’histoire de Hotan de Muhammad A’lam,” parts I-III. Hamada Masami, ed. Zinbun: memoirs of the Research Institute for Humanistic Studies, Kyoto University, 15(1979), 16(1980), 18 (1982).

Qurbân‘ali Khâlidî. An Islamic Biographical Dictionary of the Eastern Kazakh Steppe, 1770-1912. Text, translation and notes by Allen J. Frank and Mirkasyim A. Usmanov. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
—. Târîkh-i jarîda-yi jadîda. Qazan, 1889. [Author lived in the Tarbaghatay town known as Chöchäk, Chuguchak or Tacheng and has important connections to Eastern Turkistan and its Islamic history.]
Ross, E. Denison, ed. and tr. Three Turki manuscripts from Kashghar. Lahore: Mufid-i-am Press, 1908. [Contents: “Detailed contents of the three manuscripts.” Two extracts: Qasida on the revolt of Vali Khan Tora (1857 CE) with English translation; Ghazat-i-Muslimin on the rebellion of Ya‘qûb Beg.]

Sayrami, Mulla Musa. Tarikhiy äminiyä. Muhämmät Zunun, ed. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1991. [Early twentieth-century historian whose manuscript work was first published as a lithograph by Pantusov in 1905 in Tashkent.]
—. Tarikhi Hämidi. Änvär Baytur, ed. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1986. [Edited from a 1911 autograph manuscript of this work which extends and elaborates Sayrami’s Tarikhiy äminiyä. Lund collection of Gunnar Jarring contains another copy.]

Târîkh-i Kâshgar: anonimnaia tiurkskaia khronika vladetelei Vostochnogo Turkestana po konets XVII veka. [Târîkh-i Kâshgar: An Anonymous Turkic Chronicle of the Rulers of East Turkistan through the End of the 17th Century.] Facsimile, translation and notes by O.F. Akimushkin. Sankt-Peterburg: Tsentr “Peterburgskoe vostoko-vedenie,” 2001.

VII) Studies of History

he more important historical studies, using Chinese, Turkic, and Persian sources as well as the archival documents of the British, Ottoman, Russian and Qing Empires. Some Soviet-era studies exhibit anti-Chinese biases, although B.A. Akhmedov and Iu. G. Baranova are free of these. The works of Benson, Forbes, Kim, Saguchi, and Wang are generally excellent, although Baranova already put forth Kim’s argument about Ya‘qûb Beg’s international balancing act. The works of Bughra, Kurban, Saray, Turfani, Aitchen Wu and Sheng Shi-tsai (with Whiting) exhibit the biases of political participants and their allies.

Akhmedov, B.A. ed. Iz istorii Srednei Azii i Vostochnogo Turkestana XV-XIX

vv. [From the History of Central Asia and Eastern Turkistan 15th-19th Centuries.] Tashkent: Fan, 1987.
Almas, Turghun. Uyghurlar. Ürümchi: Shinjang Yashlar-ösmürlär näsh-riyati, 1989. [Comprehensive but speculative history of the medieval Uyghurs was banned and destroyed because it suggests that Uyghurs have conquered China at various times during period from Huns to Mongol Empire.]
Baranova, Iu. G. “Svedeniia Uigurskoi khroniki Ta’rikh-i Amniya o vosstanovlenii Tsinskogo gospodstva v Sin’tsziane v 1875-1878 gg.” [Information in the Uyghur Chronicle Ta’rikh-i Amniya Concerning the Restoration of Qing Rule in Xinjiang in 1875-1878.] In Materialy po istorii i kul’ture Uigurskogo Naroda, G. S. Sadvakasov et al., eds. Alma-Ata: 1978, pp. 73-133.

Baytur, Änvär and Khäyrinisa Sidiq. Shinjangdiki millätlärning tarikhi. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1991.

Benson, Linda. “Chinese Style, Turkic Content: A Discussion of Chinese Transliteration of Turkic Names.” Central Asian Survey, 7/1 (1988): 85-96.
—. The Ili Rebellion: The Moslem Challenge to Chinese Authority in Xinjiang, 1944-1949. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1990.
—. “Uygur Politicians of the 1940s: Mehmet Emin Bugra, Isa Yusuf Alptekin And Mesut Sabri.” Central Asian Survey, 10/4 (1991): 87-113.
—. “Ahmetjan Kasimi: A Chinese Paradigm for a Uygur Cultural Hero.” Central Asian Survey, 11/3 (1992): 23-49.
—. “A Much-Married Woman: Marriage and Divorce in Xinjiang 1850-1950.” Muslim World, 83/3-4 (1993): 227-247.
—. “Contested History: Issues in the Historiography of Inner Asia’s Uighurs.” In Culture Contact, History and Ethnicity in Inner Asia. Michael Gervers and Wayne Schlepp, eds. Toronto: Joint Center for Asia Pacific Studies, 1996, pp. 115-131.
—, and Ingvar Svanberg. The Russians in Xinjiang: From Immigrants to National Minority. Central Asian Survey, 8/2 (1989): 97-129.
—, and Ingvar Svanberg. China’s Last Nomads: the History and Culture of China’s Kazaks. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1998.
—, Justin Rudelson and Stanley W. Toops. Xinjiang in the Twentieth Century: historical, anthropological, and geographical perspectives. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1994.
Borei, Dorothy V. “Ethnic conflict and Qing land policy in southern Xinjiang, 1760-1840.” In Dragons, tigers, and dogs: Qing crisis management and the boundaries of state power in late imperial China. Robert J. Antony and Jane K. Leonard, eds. Ithaca, N.Y.: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 2002.
Boulger, Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh. The life of Yakoob Beg; Athalik ghazi, and Badaulet; Ameer of Kashgar. London, W.H. Allen, 1878.

Bughra, Mehmet Emin. Sharqi Turkistan tarikhi. Srinagar: Bruka Parlis Basmakhanesi, 1946.

Chou, Nailene Josephine. “Frontier studies and changing frontier administration in late Ch’ing China: the case of Sinkiang, 1759-1911.” Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington, 1976.

Duman. L. I. Agrarnaia politika tsinskogo (manchzhurskogo) pravitel’stva v Sin’tsziane v kontse XVIII veka. [The Agricultural Policy of the Qing (Manchu) Administration in Xinjiang at the End of the 18th Century.] Moscow: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1936.

Enoki Kazuo. “Researches in Chinese Turkestan during the Ch’ien-lung period, with special reference to the Hzi-yü-t’ung-wen-chih.” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Tôyô Bunko, 14 (1955): 1-46.

Everest-Phillips, Max. “The Suburban King Of Tartary.” Asian Affairs, 21/3 (1990): 324-335. [Claiming he represented the Muslim community of Chinese Turkistan as king, Dr. Bertram William Sheldrake traveled widely and gave lectures as a new monarch. Press attention faded quickly.]
—. “British Consuls in Kashgar.” Asian Affairs, 22/1 (1991): 20-34.
Forbes, Andrew. Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
—. “Role of the Hui Muslims (Tungans) in Republican Sinkiang.” In: Cultural Change and Continuity in Central Asia. London: Kegan Paul, 1991, pp. 361-372.
Galiev, V. V. Kazakhstan v sisteme rossiisko-kitaiskikh torgovo-ekonomicheskikh otnoshenii v Sin’tsziane (konets XIX-nachalo XX vv.). [Kazakhstan in the System of Russo-Chinese Commercial and Economic Relations in Xinjiang (End of the 19th-Beginning of the 20th Centuries).] Almaty: Institut istorii i etnologii im. Ch. Ch. Valikhanova, 2003. [Valuable study based extensively on Russian consular reports and some Russian archival material.]
Hamada, Masami. “La transmission du mouvement nationaliste au Turkestan oriental (Xinjiang).” Central Asian Survey, 9/1 (1990): 29-48.
—. Jihad, hijra et ‘devoir du sel’ dans l’histoire du Turkestan oriental. Turcica [Belgium], 33 (2001): 35-61. [Sharia and the concept of jihad played a continuing role under Muslim elites, but the imperial salt tax was seen as a legitimate duty to the Manchu emperors. Originally published as “‘Shio no gimu’ to ‘Seisen’ tono aida de.” Tôyôshi Kenkyû 52(2): 122-148.]

Hartmann, Martin. Chinesisch-Turkestan: Geschichte, Verwaltung, Geistesleben und Wirtschaft. Halle a. S.: Gebauer-Schwetschke, 1908.

Hidaiatov, Ärshidin. Ili Uyghurlirining milliy-azatliq härikätliri (XIX äsir). Alma-Ata: Qazaqstan “Nauka” 1978.

Hôri, Sunao. “Shincho no Kaikyo tochi no nisan no mondai: Yarukando no ichishiryo no kento o tsujite” [Some problems on the Ch’ing rule over Hui-Chiang...]. Shigaku Zasshi, 88/3 (1979): 1-36. [A study of a tax ledger suggesting that native officials were not cooperating with the conquerors in compiling figures for the poll tax.]
—. “Uiguru no rekishi to bungaku no kenkyu jokyo-Urumchi de no kenbun kara.” [Present State of Studies on Uyghur History and Literature in Ürümchi.] Seinan Ajia kenkyu [Bulletin for the Society for West and South Asia Studies, Kyoto University], 30 (Mar 1989).
—. “Kaikyo gyokubei ko” [The introduction of maize into Eastern Turkestan]. Tôyôshi Kenkyû, 52/2 (1993): 102-121.
Isiev, Daut Abdulimovich. Uigurskoe gosudarstvo Iettishar: 1864-1877. [The Uyghur State of Yettishahr, 1864-1877.] Moscow: “Nauka,” 1981.
Kabirov, Malik Niiazovich. Pereselenie iliiskikh Uigur v Semirech’e. [The Resettlement of the Ili Uyghurs in Semirech’e.] Alma-Ata: Izd-vo AN Kazakhskoi SSR, 1951.
—. Ocherki istorii uigurov Sovetskogo Kazakhstana. [Essays on the History of the Uyghurs of Soviet Kazakhstan.] Alma-Ata: Izd-vo “Nauka,” 1975.

Katanov, N. F. Pis’ma N. F. Katanova iz Sibiri i Vostochnago Turkestana. [Letters of N. F. Katanov from Siberia and East Turkistan.] St. Petersburg, 1893.

Kiernan, V. G. “Kashghar and the Politics of Central Asia, 1868-1878.” Cambridge Historical Journal, 11/3 (1955): 317-342.

Kim, Hodong. Holy War in China: the Muslim rebellion and state in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004.

Kurban, Iklil. ªarki Türkistan Cumhuriyeti, 1944-1949. Türk Tarih Kurumu yayïnlarï. VII. dizi; sa. 132. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basïmevi, 1992.

Lias, Godfrey. Kazak Exodus. London: Evans Brothers, 1956. [Using reports of Qazaq refugees in Turkey, Lias describes the events leading up to their departure from China.]

Light, Nathan. Qazaqs of China: The Local Processes of History. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana Center on Global Change and World Peace, Occasional Paper No. 22, 1994.

Lin, Enxian. Qingchao zai Xinjiang de Han Hui geli zhengce. [The Qing Dynasty policies for segregating Han and Muslims in Xinjiang.] Taibei: Taiwan shangwu yinshuguan, 1988.
Morris, L. P. “British Secret Missions in Turkestan, 1918-19.” Journal of Contemporary History, 12/2 (1977): 363-79.
Moseley, George. A Sino-Soviet Cultural Frontier: The Ili Kazakh Autonomous Chou. East Asian Research Center. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966. [Attempt at cultural and historical description using mostly published sources.]

Newby, L. J. “The begs of Xinjiang: between two worlds.” Bulletin, School of Oriental and African Studies, 61/2 (1998): 278-297.
—. “The Chinese Literary Conquest Of Xinjiang.” Modern China, 25/4 (1999): 451-474.

Norins, Martin R. Gateway to Asia: Sinkiang, Frontier of the Chinese Far West. New York: The John Day Company, 1944.

Nyman, Lars-Erik. Great Britain and Chinese, Russian and Japanese interests in Sinkiang, 1918-1934. Stockholm: Esselte studium, 1977. [One of the more balanced treatments of the “Great Game,” based on Western sources.]
—. “Sinkiang 1934-1943: Dark Decade for a Pivotal Puppet.” Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique, 32/1 (1991): 97-105.

Pantusov, Nikolai Nikolaevich. Svedeniia o Kul’dzinskom raione za 1871-1877 gody.... [Information about the Kulja Region in 1871-1877.] Kazan: v Universitetskoi tipografii, 1881.

Rossabi, Morris. “Muslim and Central Asian Revolts.” In: From Ming to Ch’ing, Jonathan D. Spence and John E. Wills Jr., eds. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979.

Ruziev, Mashur. Vozrozhdennyi uigurskii narod. [The Reborn Uyghur People.] 2nd ed. Alma-Ata: “Kazakh-stan,” 1982.

Saguchi Tôru. “Kashgaria.” Acta Asiatica, 34 (1978): 61-78.
—. “The formation of the Turfan principality under the Ch‘ing empire.” Acta Asiatica 41 (1981), pp. 76-94.
—. “Kazak Pastoralists on the Tarbaghatai Frontier under the Ch’ing.” In: Proceedings of the International Conference on China Border Area Studies. Lin En-hsien [Lin Enxian], ed. Taipei: National Chengchi University, 1985, pp. 953-996.
—. Shinkyô Minzokushi Kenkyû. Tokyo: Yoshikawa, 1986.
Samuels, Marwyn S. “Kung Tzu-Chen’s New Sinkiang.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 66/3 (1976): 416-427.

Saray, Mehmet. Doghu Türkistan tarihi. Caghaloghlu, Istanbul: Kitabevi, 1997.

Skrine, C. P. and Pamela Nightingale. Macartney at Kashgar: new light on British, Chinese and Russian activities in Sinkiang, 1890-1918. London: Methuen, 1973. [Based on British India and Foreign Office records; about the first British consul in Kashgar.]

Tsing Yuan. “Yakub Beg (1820-77) and the Moslem Rebellion in Chinese Turkestan.” Central Asiatic Journal, 6/1 (1961): 134-67.

Turfani, Hamid Allah ibn Muhammad. Turkistan 1331-1337 inqilab tarikhi. Istanbul: Basturun Taranquji Muhammad Qasim Amin, 1983.

Tyler, Christian. Wild West China: the taming of Xinjiang. London: John Murray, 2003.

Wang, David D. “The USSR and the Establishment of the Eastern Turkestan Republic in Xinjiang.” Bulletin of the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica [Taiwan], 25 (1996): 337-378.
—. “Xinjiang of the 20th Century in Historiography.” Central Asian Survey, 14/2 (1995): 265-283.
—. “An Oasis For Peace: Zhang Zhizhong’s Policy In Xinjiang, 1945-1947.” Central Asian Survey, 15/3-4 (1996): 413-429.
—. “Soviet Citizenship in Xinjiang.” Asian Studies Review, 19/3 (1996) : 87-97.
—. “The Xinjiang Question of the 1940s: The Story behind the SinoSoviet Treaty of August 1945.” Asian Studies Review, 21/1 (1997): 83-105.
—. The East Turkestan movement in Xinjiang: a Chinese potential source of instability? Singapore: East Asia Institute, National University of Singapore, 1998.
—. “Han Migration and Social Changes in Xinjiang.” Issues & Studies [Taiwan], 34/7 (1998): 33-61.
—. Under the Soviet Shadow: The Yining Incident; Ethnic Conflicts and International Rivalry in Xinjiang, 1944-1949. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1999. [In-depth archival study of this period.]
—. Clouds over Tianshan: essays on social disturbance in Xinjiang in the 1940s. Copenhagen: NIAS, 1999.

Wang, Dongping. Qingdai Hui Jiang falu zhidu yanjiu (1759-1884 nian) [On the legal system in Huijiang between 1759 and 1884.]. Harbin: Heilongjiang jiaoyu chubanshe, 2003.

Whiting, Allen S. and Sheng Shih-ts’ai. Sinkiang: pawn or pivot? East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1958.

Wu, Aitchen. Turkistan Tumult. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1940.

Zhu, Wenzhang [Wen-djang Chu]. The Moslem rebellion in northwest China, 1862-1878: a study of government minority policy. The Hague: Mouton, 1966.

Ziemann, Han-jung. Die Beziehungen Sinkiangs (Ostturkestan) zu China und der UdSSR, 1917-1945. Bochum: Studienverlag N. Brockmeyer, 1984.

VIII) World History, International Relations and Manchu-Junghar Interactions

Originating in the work of Paul Pelliot, Owen Lattimore and especially Joseph Fletcher, interest in world historical approaches to the study of Chinese Central Asia and adjoining regions has been expanding. Obviously relevant are the political interactions of Mongol states with their neighbors. Among these the Moghuls and Oyirad/Junghar/Kalmyk Mongols were among the last to maintain Chingizid principles of legitimation. Another important and heavily studied international dimension involves Ya‘qûb Beg’s struggles to maintain power through alliances with the Qing, Russian, British and even Ottoman empires. The scholars making the best use of available archives and materials include Di Cosmo, Fletcher, Millward, Miyawaki, Moiseev, Pelliot, Perdue, and Zlatkin.

Bergholz, Fred W. The partition of the steppe: the struggle of the Russians, Manchus, and the Zunghar Mongols for empire in Central Asia, 1619-1758: a study in power politics. New York: Peter Lang, 1993. [Relies heavily on others’ research.]
Chen Songkun, Bai Cuiqin. Xi Menggu shi yanjiu. [Research on the history of the Western Mongols.] Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe, 1986.
Chernyshev, A.I. Obshchestvennoe i gosudarstvennoe razvitie oiratov v XVIII v. [The Social and State Development of the Oirats in the 18th Century.] Moscow: “Nauka,” Glav. red. vostochnoi lit-ry, 1990.

Courant, Maurice. L’Asie centrale aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles: empire kalmouk ou empire mantchou? Lyon: A. Rey, 1912.
Di Cosmo, Nicola. “Qing Colonial Administration In Inner Asia.” International History Review, 20/2 (1998): 287-309.

Dubrovskaia, Dinara Viktorovna. “Iliiskii krizis v russko-kitaiskikh otnosheniiakh.” [The Ili Crisis in Russo-Chinese Relations.] Vostok, 1994: 51-63.
—. Sud’ba Sin’tsziana: obretenie Kitaem ‘Novoi granitsy’ v kontse XIX v. Moscow: IV RAN, 1998.

Fletcher, Joseph. “China and Central Asia, 1368-1884.” In: The Chinese World Order. John K. Fairbank, ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968, pp. 207-222.
—. “Ch’ing Inner Asia c. 1800.” Cambridge History of China, vol. 10, pt. 1. John K. Fairbank, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 35-106.
—. “The heyday of the Ch’ing order in Mongolia, Sinkiang, and Tibet.” Cambridge History of China, vol. 10, pt. 1. John K. Fairbank, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 351-408.
—. Studies on Chinese and Islamic Inner Asia. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ed. Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1995. Contents:
I. A source of the Erdeni-yin erike.
II. China and Central Asia, 1368-1884.
III. An Oyirod letter in the British Museum.
IV. Central Asian Sufism and Ma Ming-hsin’s New Teaching.
V. Confrontations between Muslim missionaries and nomad unbelievers in the late sixteenth century: notes on four passages from the ‘Diya’ al-qulub’.
VI. The Naqshbandiyya and the dhikr-i arra.
VII.Turco-Mongolian monarchic tradition in the Ottoman Empire.
VIII. The biography of Khwush Kipak Beg (d. 1781) in the Wai-fan Meng-ku Hui-pu wang kung piao chuan.
IX. The Mongols: ecological and social perspectives.
X. Integrative history: parallels and interconnections in the early modern period, 1500-1800.
XI. The Naqshbandiyya in northwest China.
Gurevich, B. P. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia v Tsentral’noi Azii. 2nd edition. Moscow: “Nauka,” 1983.
— and G. F. Kim, eds. Mezhdu-narodnye otnosheniia v Tsentral’noi Azii, XVII-XVIII vv.: dokumenty i materialy.[International Relations in Central Asia, 18th-19th Centuries. Documents.] 2 vols. Moscow: “Nauka,” 1989.
Hasiotis, Arthur C. Soviet political, economic, and military involvement in Sinkiang from 1928 to 1949. New York: Garland, 1987.

Hsü, Immanuel C. Y. The Ili Crisis: A Study of Sino-Russian Diplomacy, 1878-1881. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.
Khodzhaev, Ablat. Tsinskaia imperiia, Dzhungariia i Vostochnyi Turkestan. [The Qing Empire, Jungharia and East Turkistan.] Moscow: “Nauka,” 1979. [On Qing China’s colonial policies.]
—, and B. A. Akhmedov. Tsinskaia imperiia i Vostochnyi Turkestan v XVIII v.: iz istorii mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenii v Tsentral’noi Azii. [The Qing Empire and East Turkistan in the 18th Century: On the History of International Relations in Central Asia.] Tashkent: Izd-vo Fan Uzbekskoi SSR, 1991.
Kuznetsov, Viacheslav Semenovich. Tsinskaia imperiia na rubezhakh Tsentral’noi Azii: vtoraia polovina XVIII-pervaia polovina XIX v. [The Qing Empire on the Borders of Central Asia: the Second Half of the 18th-First Half of the 19th Centuries.] Novosibirsk: “Nauka,” Sibirskoe otd., 1983.

Lattimore, Owen. Pivot of Asia: Sinkiang and the Inner Asian Frontiers of China and Russia. Boston: Little, Brown, 1950. [Most relevant of his many valuable studies on Inner Asia.]

Millward, James A. “A Uyghur Muslim in Qianlong’s Court: The Meanings of the Fragrant Concubine.” Journal of Asian Studies, 53/2 (1994): 427-458.
—. “New Perspectives on the Qing Frontier.” In: Remapping China. Gail Hershatter et al, eds. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996, pp. 113-129.
—. Beyond the pass: economy, ethnicity, and empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.
—. “Coming onto the Map: ‘Western Regions’ Geography and Cartographic Nomenclature in the Making of Chinese Empire in Xinjiang.” Late Imperial China, 20/2 (1999): 61-98.
—. “Historical perspectives on contemporary Xinjiang.” Inner Asia, 2/2 (2000): 121-35.
—. “The Qing Formation, the Mongol Legacy, and the ‘End of History’ in Early Modern Central Eurasia.” In: The Qing Formation in World-Historical Time. Lynn A. Struve, ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004, pp. 92-120.

Mitirov, A. G. Oiraty-kalmyki: veka i pokoleniia. [The Oirat-Kalmyks: Centuries and Generations.] Elista: Kalmytskoe knizhnoe izd-vo, 1998.

Miyawaki, Junko. “The Qalqa Mongols and the Oyirad in the Seventeenth Century.” Journal of Asian History, 18/2 (1984): 136-173.
—. Saigo no yûboku teikoku: Jûngarubu no kôbô [The last nomadic empire: the decline of the Jungghar.] Tokyo: Kodansha, 1995.
—. “The birth of the Oyirad Khanship.” Central Asiatic Journal, 41/1 (1997): 38-75.
—. “The Legitimacy of Khanship among the Oyirad (Kalmyk) Tribes in Relation to the Chinggisid Principle.” In: The Mongol empire and its legacy. Reuven Amitai-Preiss and David O. Morgan, eds. Leiden: Brill, 1999, pp. 319-331.

Moiseev, V. A. Dzhungarskoe khanstvo i kazakhi: XVII-XVIII vv.[The Junghar Khanate and the Kazakhs: 18th-19th Centuries.] Alma-Ata: “Gylym,” 1991.
—. Rossiia i Dzhungarskoe khanstvo v XVIII veke: ocherk vneshnepoliticheskikh otnoshenii.[Russia and the Junghar Khanate in the 18th Century: An Outline of Foreign Relations.] Barnaul: Altaiskii gos. universitet, 1998.
—. Rossiia i Kitai v Tsentral’noi Azii (vtoraia polovina XIX v.-1917 g.) [Russia and China in Central Asia (Second Half of the 19th Century-1917).] Barnaul: Azbuka, 2003.

Pelliot, Paul. Notes critiques d’histoire kalmouke. Paris, Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient, 1960. [Detailed annotations of John F. Baddeley’s Russia, Mongolia, China with Chinese sources about the Kalmyks.]

Perdue, Peter C. “Military Mobilization in Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century China, Russia, and Mongolia.” Modern Asian Studies, 30/4 (1996): 757-793. [Important discussion of Inner Asian interactions in world-historical terms.]
—. “Boundaries, maps, and movement: Chinese, Russian, and Mongolian empires in early modern central Eurasia.” International History Review, 20/2 (1998): 263-286.
—. “The Qing Empire in Eurasian Time and Space: Lessons from the Galdan Campaigns.” In: The Qing Formation in World-Historical Time. Lynn A. Struve, ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004, pp. 57-90.
—. China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005.

Rossabi, Morris. China And Inner Asia: From 1368 To The Present Day. London: Thames and Hudson, 1975.

Sanchirov, Vladimir Petrovich. “Iletkhel shastir” kak istochnik po istorii oiratov. Moscow: “Nauka,” Glav. red. vostochnoi lit-ry, 1990.

Saray, Mehmet. The Russian, British, Chinese, and Ottoman rivalry in Turkestan: four studies on the history of central Asia. Ankara: Turkish Historical Society Printing House, 2003. [Uses and translates some Ottoman archival material.]

Schorkowitz, Dittmar. Die soziale und politische Organisation bei den Kalmücken (Oiraten) und Prozesse der Akkulturation vom 17. Jahrhundert bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang, 1992.

Syroezhkin, Konstantin L’vovich. Sovremennyi Sin’tszian i ego mesto v kazakhstansko-kitaiskikh otno-sheniiakh. [Contemporary Xinjiang and Its Place in Sino-Kazakh Relations.] Almaty: Fond Evrazii, 1997.

Waley-Cohen, Joanna. Exile in Mid-Qing China: Banishment to Xinjiang,1758-1820. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

Zlatkin, Ilia Iakovlevich. Istoriia Dzhungarskogo khanstva,1635-1758. [History of the Junghar Khanate, 1635-1758.] Moscow: Nauka, 1964; rev. ed., Moscow, 1983.

Zotov, O. Kitai i Vostochnyi Turkestan v XV-XVIII vekakh; mezhgosudarstvennye otnosheniia. [China and East Turkistan in the 15th-18th Centuries: Interstate Relations.] Moscow: Nauka, 1991.

IX) Western Explorers, Missionaries, and Consuls (excluding travel accounts not related to formal expeditions)

The works listed below are the more important accounts of ethnographic and archaeological expeditions in Eastern Turkistan since the mid-1800s. Most of these expeditions also result in extensive publications about archaeological and manuscript materials. I have left out many publications by Japanese and Russian explorers because these are readily found through the secondary sources listed here. There are also at least 400 travel narratives in Western languages and many more in Chinese and Japanese. Daniel Waugh and Adela Lee’s compilation of bibliographies on early travelers on the Silk Road has made an excellent beginning for the ancient and medieval periods (<>) and will be supplemented soon.
Many briefer accounts from travelers and explorers appear in journals. Most of the English-language journals are available in the JSTOR database of journal page images beginning in the late 1800s. The breadth of coverage (and variety of spellings and names) in the journals at can be seen from the following statistics on searches using geographic terms: 1583 for Sinkiang, 873 for Xinjiang and 51 for Hsin-chiang; 942 for Chinese Turkestan and 366 for Eastern Turkestan (using Turkistan in each phrase gives 400 more); 736 for Khotan and 38 for Hotan; 612 for Yarkand; 852 for Kashgar and 72 for Kashghar; 862 for Turfan and 18 for Turpan; 425 for Hami and 23 for Qomul; 174 for Dzungaria and 28 for Zungaria; 258 for Urumchi and 33 for Tihwa; 146 for Kuldja and 89 for Kulja; 49 for Korla; 52 for Chuguchak, 53 for Tarbagatai and 23 for Tacheng; etc.

Ambolt, Nils. Karavan: Travels in Eastern Turkestan. Foreword by Sven Hedin. Translated from the Swedish by Joan Bulman. London & Glasgow: Blackie and Son Limited, 1939.

Baud, A., Ph. Forêt and S. Gorshenina. La Haute-Asie telle qu’ils l’ont vue. Explorateurs et scientifiques de 1820-1940. Geneva: Editions Olizane, 2003.

Cable, Mildred and Francesca French. George Hunter, Apostle of Turkestan. London: China Inland Mission, 1948.

Clark, Milton J. “How the Kazakhs Fled to Freedom.” National Geographic Magazine, 106/5 (1954): 621-644.
—. “Leadership and Political Allocation in Sinkiang Kazak Society.” Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. Harvard University, 1955. [Unfortunately Harvard libraries make the unique copy of this work based on first-hand experience impossible to borrow.]

Dabbs, Jack Autrey. History of the Discovery and Exploration of Chinese Turkestan. The Hague, Mouton, 1963.

de Filippi, Filippo, Giotto Dainelli and John Alfred Spranger. The Italian expedition to the Himalaya, Karakoram and Eastern Turkestan (1913-1914). London: E. Arnold & Co., 1932.

Forsyth, Thomas Douglas, et al. Report of a mission to Yarkund in 1873. Calcutta: Foreign Dept. Press, 1875.
Gorshenina, Svetlana. Explorateurs en Asie Centrale: Voyageurs et aventuriers de Marco Polo à Ella Maillart. Genève: Éditions Olizane, 2003. [Annotated bibliography of travel accounts.]
Grenard, Fernand. J.-L. Dutreuil de Rhins; Mission scientifique dans la haute Asie, 1890-1895. 2 vols. Paris: E. Leroux, 1897-1898. [This important description of exploration, history, folklore and religious traditions was completed by Grenard after the death of Dutreuil de Rhins.]

Hedin, Sven. Through Asia. J. T. Bealby, trans. 2 vols. London: Methuen, 1899. [Account of expedition 1893-97.]
—. Central Asia and Tibet. J. T. Bealby, trans. 2 vols. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1903. [1899-1902 expedition to Chinese Turkistan and Tibet.]
—, et al. Scientific Results of a Journey in Central Asia 1899-1902. 6 vols. Stockholm: Lithographic Institute of the General staff of the Swedish army, 1904-1907.
—. Riddles of the Gobi desert. Elizabeth Sprigge and Claude Napier, trans. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1933.
—. The Flight of “Big Horse”; the trail of war in Central Asia. F. H. Lyon, trans. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1936.
—. The Silk Road. F. H. Lyon, trans. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1938.
—. The Wandering Lake. F. H. Lyon, trans. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1940. [Hedin’s discovery of why the location of Lake Lop-Nor changed over the centuries.]
[For an introduction to Hedin’s voluminous bibliography, see Daniel C. Waugh’s “A Sven Hedin Bibliography” <http://www.>.]
Hopkirk, Peter. Foreign devils on the silk road: the search for the lost cities and treasures of Chinese Central Asia. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980.

Jarring, Gunnar. Return to Kashgar: Central Asian memoirs in the present. Durham: Duke University Press, 1986.
Kliashtornyi, S. G, et al. Vostochnyi Turkestan glazami Russkikh puteshestvennikov. [East Turkistan through the Eyes of Russian Travelers.] Alma-Ata: “Nauka” Kazakhskoi SSR, 1988.

Lattimore, Owen. High Tartary. Boston: Little, Brown, 1930. [Travels through Northern Xinjiang in 1927.]

Le Coq, Albert von. Buried treasures of Chinese Turkestan: an account of the activities and adventures of the second and third German Turfan expeditions. Anna Barwell, trans. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1928.
—. Von Land und Leuten in Ostturkistan: Berichte und Abenteuer der 4. deutschen Turfanexpedition. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1928.

Mannerheim, Carl Gustaf Emil. Across Asia from West to East in 1906-1908. 2 vols. Helsinki, 1940.

Michell, John. The Russians in Central Asia ... descriptions of Chinese Turkestan and Dzungaria by Capt. Valikhanof, M. Veniukof, etc. London: E. Stanford, 1865.
Mirsky, Jeannette. Sir Aurel Stein, archaeological explorer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977. [Largely a summary/precis of his writings.]
Obzor russkikh puteshestvii i ekspeditsii v Sredniuiu Aziiu. Materialy k istorii izucheniia Srednei Azii, 4 pts. O. V. Maslova, comp. Tashkent: Izd-vo “FAN” Uzbekskoi SSR, 1955-1971. [Valuable annotated bibliography of Russian travelers and expeditions in Central Asia from 1715-1886.]
Paxton, John Hall. Papers. Yale University Library, Manuscripts and Archives, Manuscript Group Number 629. [U.S. consul in Xinjiang 1945-1949. Author of “Escape over the Roof of the World” in the Saturday Evening Post and U.S. Camera photo essay on the escape (June 1951).]

Pevtsov, M. V. Puteshestvie po Vostochnomu Turkestanu, Kun-Luniu, severnoi okraine tibetskago nagor’ia i Chzhungarii v 1889-m i 1890-m godakh. [Journey through East Turkestan, the Kun-Lun and the Northern Fringes of the Tibetan Plateau and Jungharia in 1889 and 1890.] St. Petersburg: M. Stasiulevich, 1895. [Partial translation as “An Ethnographic Sketch of Kashgaria.” Journal of Steward Anthropological Society, 12 (1982).]

Przheval’skii, Nikolai Mikhailovich. From Kulja, across the Tian Shan to Lob-Nor. E. Delmar Morgan, tr.; T. D. Forsyth, intro. London: S. Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1879.

Skrine, C. P. Chinese Central Asia. London,: Methuen, 1926. [Still valuable descriptive account based on his travels in Western Xinjiang while British Consul in Kashgar, 1922-1924.]

Stein, M. Aurel. Sand-buried ruins of Khotan; personal narrative of a journey of archaeological & geographical exploration in Chinese Turkestan. London: T.F. Unwin, 1903.
—. Ancient Khotan, detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907. [Online at <>.]
—. Ruins of desert Cathay; personal narrative of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China. London: Macmillan and Co., 1912.
—. Serindia: detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China. 5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921.
Walker, Annabel, Aurel Stein: Pioneer of the Silk Road. London: John Muray, 1995. [Serious biography based on Stein archive.]
Waugh, Daniel C. “The ‘mysterious and terrible Karatash gorges’: notes and documents on the explorations by Stein and Skrine.” Geographical Journal, 165/3 (1999): 306-20.

Whitfield, Susan. Aurel Stein on the Silk Road. Serindia Publications, 2004. [Excellent, illustrated introduction to Stein for the general reader.]

X) Basic Sources for Linguistics and Language Study

Turkic, Manchu, and Mongol linguistics are vast fields and many works have been published on these and other historical and modern languages of Eastern Turkistan. The list below primarily references works useful for studying modern Uyghur since it is the dominant language of the region and has only a limited number of speakers elsewhere. The most comprehensive bilingual dictionaries are those produced by Nadzhip, Iliev and Schwarz, while the multivolume dictionary produced by Abliz Yaqub, et al, provides examples of usage. Schwarz and Jarring both include information about etymology and Schwarz provides classified word lists and illustrations. A comprehensive dialect dictionary has yet to be produced, but Ghopuri, Jarring, Malov, Osmanov, Sadvaqasov, and Tenishev have gathered important materials. Many of the collections of oral texts listed below consist are folklore materials.
Abikänuli, Nurbäk. Qazaqsha-khanzusha sözdik [Qazaq-Chinese Dictionary.] Beijing: Minzu chubanshe, 1989. [Extensive and accurate bilingual dictionary.]
Duval, Jean-R. “Modern Uyghur, A Historical Perspective.” In: Culture Contact, History and Ethnicity in Inner Asia. Michael Gervers and Wayne Schlepp, eds. Toronto: Joint Center for Asia Pacific Studies, 1996, pp. 132-67.

Dwyer, Arienne. “Language Contact in Qumul.” Journal of Central Asian Studies, 3/1 (Fall-Winter 1998): 30-41.

Ghopuri, Ghulam. Uyghur shiviliri sözlügi. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1986.
—, Muhämmät Tursun Ibrahimi, Khoja Äkhmät Yünüs, compilers. Uyghur kilassik ädäbiyatidin qisqichä sözlük. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1986.

Hahn, Reinhard and Ablahat Ibrahim. Spoken Uyghur. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991. [An introductory text book.]

Iliev, A., et al. Russko-uigurskii slovar’. Moscow: Gos. Izd-vo inostrannykh slovarei, 1956. [30,000 word Russian-Uyghur dictionary.]
Jarring, Gunnar. An Eastern Turki-English Dialect Dictionary. Lunds universitets årsskrift. N.F. Avd. 1, bd. 56, nr. 4. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1964. [Roughly 15,000 entries.]
—. “The Toponym Takla-Makan.” Turkic Studies, 1/2 (1997): 227-41.

Qawuz, Qadir. Han-Ying-Wei chengyu cidian= A Chinese-English Uighur dictionary of idioms = Khänzuchä-Inglizchä-Uyghurchä turaqliq ibarilär lughiti. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1990. [Provides translations and explanations for roughly 10,600 proverbs and sayings.]

Malov, S. E. Lobnorskii iazyk. [The Lobnor Language.] Frunze: Izd-vo AN Kirgizskoi SSR, 1956.
—. Uigurskie narechiia Sin’tsziana: teksty, perevody, slovar’. [The Uyghur Dialects of Xinjiang: Texts, Translations, Dictionary.] Moscow: Izd-vo vostochnoi lit-ry, 1961.
—. Uigurskii iazyk: khamiiskoe narechie: teksty, perevody i slovar’. [The Uyghur Language: The Hami Dialect. Texts, Translations and Dictionary.] Moscow: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1954.
—. “Materialy po uigurskim narechiiam Sin’tsziana.” [Materials on the Uyghur Dialects of Xinjiang.] In: Sergeiu Fedorovichu Ol’den-burgu: k piatidesiatiletiiu nauchno-obshchestvennoi deiatel’nosti, 1882-1932. Leningrad, 1934, pp. 307-322.
Mawkanuli, Talant. “The Jungar Tuvas: Language and National Identity in the PRC.” Central Asian Survey, 20/4 (2001): 497-517.
Nadzhip, Emir N. Uigursko-russkii slovar. Moscow: “Sov. entsiklo-pediia,” 1968. [Uyghur-Russian dictionary, with very detailed entries for roughly 33,000 words.]
Osmanov, Mirsultan, Ansardin Musa, and Osman Nadir. Hazirqi zaman uyghur tili dialektliri. Ürümchi: Shinjang Yashlar-ösmürlär näsh-riyati, 1990.
Päyzulla, Änwär. Inglizchä-Uyghurchä lughät; English-Uighur Dictionary. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1988.

Sadvaqasov [Sadvakasov], G. Iazyk uigurov Ferganskoi doliny. [The Language of the Ferghana Valley Uyghurs.] 2 vols. Alma-Ata: “Nauka” Kazakhskoi SSR, 1970-1976.

Schwarz, Henry G. An Uyghur-English dictionary. Bellingham, Wash.: Western Washington University Press, 1992.

Sinjon, Danyel [St. John, Daniel]. A Uighur-English Dictionary; Uyghurchä-Inglizchä lughät. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1992.
Song, Zhengchun. “Multilingual families of the Tuvinian people in Xinjiang (Mongolia).” International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 97 (1992): 23-35.

Tenishev, Edgem R. Uigurskie teksty. [Uyghur Texts.] Moscow: Nauka, 1984.
—. Uigurskii dialektnyi slovar. [Uyghur Dialect Dictionary.] Moscow: “Nauka”, 1990.

Yaqub, Abliz, et al. Shinjang Uighur Aptonom Rayonluq Millatlar Til-Yeziq Khizmiti Komiteti Lughat Bölümi. Uighur tilining izahliq lughiti. 6 vols. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1990-1999.

Zhao Xiangru and Reinhard F. Hahn. “The Ili Turk people and their language.” Central Asiatic Journal, 33/3-4 (1989): 260-289.

XI) Studies of Literature and Literary History

The study of medieval Turkic literary history and Turkic linguistics are fairly advanced but authors from the last 500 years have attracted less international interest and are assigned to one or another national literature. This results in tendentious literary histories that attempt to strengthen or at least adjudicate the validity of, for example, Uyghur or Uzbek claims to particular authors. Only a few studies such as those of Ärshidinov and Friederich have begun to move beyond the cataloging, categorizing and historicizing modes of literary analysis to understand literature in its social contexts, and local scholars have also been reluctant to accept religious materials such as hagiographies within the nationalized literary traditions. The simple model of an evolving “national” literature has over-whelmed the possibility of describing literature in use. But the materials for more detailed study are rich: many relevant editions of manuscript ghazal collections and dastans have been published in Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Kashgar, Ürümchi and Beijing, as well as in the journal Bulaq.

Ärshidinov, Batur. Uyghur klassikliri ijadiyitigä dastan zhanri (XIX äsirning birinchi yerimi). Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1988. [A study of the written dastan genre of Uyghur poetry during the first half of the nineteenth century, when popular rebellions became an important sources for dastan narratives.]

Friederich, Michael. Die ujghurische Literatur in Xinjiang 1956-1966. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997.

Ghochur, Vahtijan and Äsqär Husäyin. Uyghur klassik ädibiyati tezisiliri. Beijing, 1987. [A wide-ranging history of the authors and works that are now considered part of the Uyghur literary tradition, from the Uyghur Qaghanate through the Idiqut kingdom and the Qara-khanids, including Abu Nasr Muhammad Farabi and many Chaghatay authors, but excluding popular poets such as Mashrab and Huwaydâ who have been assigned to the Uzbeks.]

Jarring, Gunnar. Some notes on eastern Turki (New Uighur) munazara literature. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1981.
—. ‘The Thiefless City’ and ‘The Contest between Food and Throat.’ Scripta Minora 1989-1990:1. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1989.
—. Prints from Kashghar; the printing-office of the Swedish mission in eastern Turkestan. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1991.

Kaidarov, A. T. Razvitie sovre-mennogo Uigurskogo literaturnogo iazyka. [The Development of the Contemporary Uyghur Literary Language.] Alma-Ata: 1969. [Soviet Uyghur version of the development of Uyghur literary poetry and prose.]

Khamraev, M. K. Osnovy tiurskogo stikhoslozheniia; na materiale uigurskoi klassicheskoi i sovremennoi poezii. [The Foundations of Turkic Versification; Based on the Materials of Uyghur Classical and Contemporary Poetry.] Alma-Ata: Izd-vo AN Kazakhskoi SSR, 1963.
Light, Nathan. “Kazakhs of the Tarbaghatai: Ethno-History Through a Novel.” The Turkish Studies Association Bulletin, 17/2 ( 1993): 91-102. [Analysis of a novel about nomadic life from an ethnographic perspective.]

Mollaudov, Savut. Bilal Nazimning haiati va ijadi. Alma-Ata: Qazaqstan SSR “Nauka” nashriiati, 1976. [The life and works of the author Bilal Nazim who worked with N. Pantusov.]
—, and Gh. Sadvaqasov. Uighur adabiiatining qisqicha tarikhi. Alma-Ata: Qazaqstan SSR “Nauka” nashriiati, 1983.
—. XVIII äsir uighur poeziiasi (tätqiqat va tekstlar). Alma-Ata: “Nauka” nashriiati, 1990.

Naby, Eden. “Uighur literature: the antecedents.” In: Cultural Change and Continuity in Central Asia. Shirin Akiner, ed. London: Kegan Paul, 1991, pp. 14-28.

Narynbaev, Aziz I. Progressivnaya obshchestvenno-filosofskaya mysl’ Uigurov vtoroi poloviny XIX v. Frunze: Ilim, 1988. [Social philosophies of late 19th-century Uyghur authors in order to reclaim ancestors as progressive thinkers.]
Shahrani, M. Nazif. “Local Knowledge of Islam and Social Discourse in Afghanistan and Turkistan in the Modern Period.” In: Turko-Persia in Historical-Perspective, Robert L. Canfield, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 161-188. [Good description of literature in use by nomads from Eastern Turkistan.]

Sherip, Islamjan and Abdukerim Rakhman, eds. Uyghur pälsäpä tarikhighä a’it mäsililär. Kashgar: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1981. [Articles about the philosophical tradition expressed by Uyghur authors.]

Thwaites, Dilber. “Zunun Kadir’s ambiguity; the dilemma of a Uyghur writer under Chinese rule.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Australian National University, 2001.

Wei Cuiyi. “An Historical Survey of Modern Uighur Writing since the 1950s in Xinjiang, China.” Central Asiatic Journal, 37/3-4 (1993): 249-322.
XII) Performing Arts, Ethnomusicology, Folklore, Folk Art, Architecture and Material Culture
The study of Turkic, Mongol and Manchu folk traditions in Eastern Turkistan has a long history, and oral literature and music in particular have remained productive topics for research and publishing while religion has been more sensitive in China and the Soviet Union. Folk qoshaq and dastan songs have been published and analyzed in Russian and Uyghur, but there has been little comparative investigation of the widely circulated materials such as the romantic dastans and Nasirdin Äpändi (Hoca Nasreddin) tales. M. Alieva has written on the characteristics of oral folklore genres: nakhsha, bäyt and qoshaq (songs), läpär (humorous song and dance performances), tepishmaq (riddles), maqal-tämsil (proverbs, sayings), chöchäk (tale), rivayät (legend), äpsanä (myth), lätipä (humorous anecdotes), but despite the excellent work of Radlov, Pantusov, Katanov, Malov (see under linguistics), Jarring, Le Coq, and Reichl there has been little comparative or ethnographic work on narrative and song forms. In addition to items listed here many others Uyghur song and tale collections have been published in Xinjiang and Kazakstan, making the available material very rich.
International interest over the past 20 years has focused on the Uyghur muqam song tradition because of its importance as a symbol of Uyghur cultural identity and history and its relationship to maqamat traditions in other parts of Eurasia, with the work of Light, Trebinjac, Tsai and Zhou being the most important. Since the 1950s expanding and standardizing the muqam repertoire has been heavily supported in Xinjiang and Kazakstan in order to present muqams as the centerpieces of Uyghur traditional culture. Similarly, interest in Qirghiz, Mongol and Manchu/Sibe has focused on the epic traditions, such as the famous Manas epic of Jusup Mamay which may be as long as 500,000 lines in its full extent. Other performing arts and material culture are being studied in some detail, with the best ethnographic work done by Dautcher and Harris.
Alakhunov, A. Uighur Khaliq Qoshaqliri. Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1977.

Alibakieva, Tamara. Uigurskie istoricheskie pesni. [Uyghur Historical Songs.] Moscow: Sovetskii kompozitor, 1986. [Songs and musical transcriptions.]

Alieva, Makhinur M. Uighur khaliq chöchäkliri. Alma-Ata: Zhazushy nashriiati, 1969.
—. Uigurskaia skazka. [The Uyghur Tale.] Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1975.
—. Zhanry uigurskogo fol’klora. [Genres of Uyghur Folklore.] Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1989.

Aratan, Ekrem Ural. Kâþgar aðzýndan derlemeler. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Basïmevi, 1965. [Oral materials from Kashgar.]

Baqi, Tokhti. Uyghur tamaqliri. Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1984. [Traditional Uyghur foods.]

Chao Gejin. Qiannian juechang yingxiongge: Weilate Menggu shishichuan tongtian yesanji = The heroic songs of the past: fieldnotes on the Oirat Mongolian epic tradition. Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe, 2004.

Çubukçu, Bayhan and Söhret A. Oghuzoghlu. “Geleneksel Uygur Tibbinda Kullanilan Bitkisel Ilac Hammaddeleri.” Türk halk kültürü arastirmalari 1994. Ankara: Kültür Bakanligi, 1996, p. 43-60. [Methods of Uyghur healing.]

Dautcher, Jay. “Folklore and Identity in a Uighur Community in Xinjiang, China.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, 1999.

Du Yaxiong and Zhou Ji. Sichou zhi lu de yinyue wenhua. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe, 1997. [A study of Silk Road musical culture by two excellent ethnomusicologists.]

During, Jean and Sabine Trebinjac. Introduction au Muqam Ouïgour. Bloomington, Indiana: RIFIAS, 1991.

Hali, Awelkhan, Zengxiang Li, and Karl W. Luckert. Kazakh traditions of China. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1998. [A collection of cultural material presented according to Luckert’s evolutionary scheme.]
Harris, Rachel. “Music, Identity and Persuasion: ethnic minority music in Xinjiang, China.” Unublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of London, 1998.
—. “Cassettes, Bazaars and Saving the Nation: the Uyghur Music Industry in Xinjiang, China.” In: Global Goes Local: Popular Culture in Asia. T. Craig & R. King, eds. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2001, pp. 265-83.
—. “Wang Luobin: ‘Folksong King of the Northwest’ or Song Thief? Copyright, representation and Chinese ‘folksongs’.” In: Consuming China: approaches to cultural change in contemporary China. Kevin Latham and Stuart Thompson, eds. Curzon Press, forthcoming. [Appears to be planned for late 2005.]
—, and Rahile Dawut. “Mazar Festivals of the Uyghurs: Music, Islam and the Chinese State.” Ethnomusicology Forum, 11/1 (2002): 101-18.
—. “Snapshot: Uighur Popular Music,” in The Garland encyclopedia of world music. Vol 7: East Asia: China, Japan and Korea. Robert Provine, Yosihiko Tokumaru, and J. Lawrence Witzleben, eds. New York: Routledge, 2002, pp. 467-71.
—. Singing the village: music, memory and ritual among the Sibe of Xinjiang. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Hartmann, Martin. “Ein Türkischer text aus Kašgar.” Keleti Szemle (Revue orientale), 5 (1904): 21-35, 161-84, 330-43; 6 (1905): 25-65. [“Shingiltak and 7 dongiltak” a folktale similar to Andersen’s “Der kleine Clause und der grosse Claus” and to a tale in Radlov’s collection. Text and analysis.]
—. “Die Geschichte von den Vierzig Leibern (Èilten). I. Ein türkischer Text aus Jarkend.” Mitteilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen, 8 (1905): 25-38.
Haªim, Ehet. Uygur halk masallarï. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi, 1989.

Hu Djen-Hua and Rémy Dor. “Manas chez les Kirghiz du Xinjiang.” Turcica, 14/4 (1984): 29-50.

Jamaldinov, Oktyabr’. Uyghur khälq qoshaqliri. Alma-Ata: Zhazushy, 1988.
Jarring, Gunnar. Materials to the knowledge of Eastern Turki; tales, poetry, proverbs, riddles, ethnological and historical texts from the southern parts of Eastern Turkestan, with translation and notes. 4 vols. Lunds universitets årsskrift, N.F, 43/4, 44/7, and 47/3-4. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1946-1951. [1. Texts from Khotan and Yarkand. 2. Texts from Kashghar, Tashmalig und Kucha. 3. Folklore from Guma. 4. Ethnological and historical texts from Guma.]
—. Matters of Ethnological Interest in Swedish Missionary Reports from Southern Sinkiang. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1979.
—. The Moen Collection of Eastern Turki (New Uighur) Proverbs and Popular Sayings. Scripta Minora 1984-1985:1, Lund 1984.
—. Garments from Top to Toe; Eastern Turki texts relating to articles of clothing. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1992.
—. Stimulants among the Turks of Eastern Turkestan: an Eastern Turki text edited with translation, notes and glossary. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1993.
—, and Sigfrid Moen. The Moen collection of eastern Turki (New Uighur) popular poetry. Scripta Minora 1996-1997:1. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1996.
Kabirov, M.N. Uigurskie skazki. [Uyghur Tales.] Alma-Ata, 1963.
—, and V.F. Shakhmatov. Uigurskie narodnye skazki. [Uyghur Folk Tales.] Moscow: Gos. izd-vo khudozh. lit-ry, 1951.
Kadyrov, A. N. Uigurskii sovetskii teatr. [Uyghur Soviet Theater.] Alma-Ata : Oner, 1984.

Khamraev, M. K. and Iu. I. Levin. Uigurskie poslovitsy i pogovorki: na uigurskom i russkom iazykakh i s russkimi paralleliami. [Uyghur Aphorisms and Sayings in Uyghur and Russian and with Russian Parallels.] Moscow: Glav. red. vostochnoi lit-ry, 1981.

Katanov, N. F. and Karl Menges. Volkskundliche Texte aus Ost-Türkistan. 3 vol. Berlin and Mainz: Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1933-1954.

Le Coq, Albert von. Sprichwörter und Lieder aus der Gegend von Turfan. Baessler-Archiv, beiheft 1. Berlin: B.G. Teubner, 1911.
—, and Otto von Falke. Volkskundliches aus Ost-Turkistan. Berlin: D. Reimer, 1916.
—. “Ost-Türkisshe gedichte und erzählungen.” Keleti Szemle (Revue orientale), 18 (1918-19): 50-118.

Lebedeva, E.P. and L.M. Gorelova, eds. Sidi kur: sibinskaia versiia “Volshebnogo mertvetsa.” [Sidi Kur: A Sibe-Manchu Version of the”Bewitched Corpse” Cycle.] Transcribed by V.V. Radlov. Transliterated and introduced by Giovanni Stary. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1994.

Mackerras, Colin. “Uygur performing art in contemporary China.” China Quarterly, 101 (March 1985): 58-77.
—. “Traditional Uygur Performing Arts.” Asian Music, 16/1 (Fall-Winter 1985): 29-58.

Mamay, Jüsüp. Manas; Qirghiz elinin tarikhiy eposu. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1989-. [Extensive version of the Manas epic planned to include at least 8 volumes.]

Mehrulla, Himit and Lätipä Qorban. Uyghur ussul sän’iti toghirisida. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1991.

Omär, Uchqunjan, ed. Uyghur khälq tarikhiy qoshaqliri. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1981.

Öztopçu, Kurtuluš. Uygur atasözleri ve deyimleri. Istanbul: Doghu Türkistan Vakfï, 1992. [Collection of Uyghur proverbs.]

Pantusov, N. N. Materialy k izucheniiu nariechiia Taranchei Iliiskago okruga. [Materials for the Study of the Taranchi Dialect of the Ili District.] 9 issues [vyp.]. Kazan: Tip. Imperatorskago universiteta, 1897-1907.
—. Obraztsy taranchinskoi narodnoi literatury: teksty i perevody. [Examples of Taranchi Popular Literature: Texts and Translations.] Kazan: Tip. Impera-torskago universiteta, 1909.
—. Taranchinskiia pesni. [Taranchi Songs.] St. Petersburg: Tip. Impera-torskoi akademii nauk, 1890.
—, and Bilal Nazym. Voina musul’man protiv Kitaitsev: tekst nariechiia Taranchi. [The Muslim War against the Chinese: A Text in the Taranchi Dialect.] 2 vols. Kazan: v univ. tip., 1880-1881. [v. 1. Kitabi-gazat der mul’ki Chin (Religioznaia voina v Kitaiskom gosudarstve) (Kitabi-gazat der mul’ki Chin [Religious War in the Chinese State]); v. 2. Pesni Taranchei. O vspomogatel’nykh glagolakh. Primechaniia (Taranchi Songs. On the Auxiliary Verbs. Notes).]

Radlov, V. V. Obraztsy narodnoi literatury severnykh Tiurkskikh plemen’. [Examples of Popular Literature of the Northern Turkic Tribes.] Vol. 6. Narechie Taranchei. [The Taranchi Dialect.] St. Petersburg: Tip. Imperatorskoi akademii nauk, 1886.

Rakhman, Abdukerim. Folklor vä yazma ädäbiyat. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1989.
—. Uyghur folklori häqqidä bayan. Ürümchi: Xinjiang University Press, 1990. [Describes traditional daily life. rituals, farming, trade, food, healing, and material culture.]

Raquette, Gustaf Richard and Gunnar Jarring. Gustaf Raquette and Qasim Akhun’s letters to Kamil efendi: ethnological and folkloristic materials from southern Sinkiang. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1975.

Reichl, Karl. Märchen aus Sinkiang: Überlieferungen der Turkvölker Chinas. Köln: E. Diederichs Verlag, 1986.

Rincindorji. “Uber den ‘Jangyar’ in Sinkiang und die Jangyarsanger.” Joerg Becker, trans. Fragen der mongolischen Heldendichtung, III. Walther Heissig, ed. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1985, pp. 273-300.
Sadvakasov, G. Uighur fol’klorining antologiiasi. [Anthology of Uyghur Folklore.] Alma-Ata: “Nauka,” 1988.
—, and Sh. Kibirov. Uighur maqal va tamsilliri = Uigurskie poslovitsy i pogovorki. [Uyghur Aphorisms and Sayings.] Alma-Ata: “Nauka” Kazakhskoi SSR, 1978.
Svanberg, Ingvar. “A Collection of Kazak Riddles from Chinese Turkistan and Mongolia.” Arv: Scandinavian Yearbook of Folklore, 38 (1982): 163–73.
Tömür, Khewir. Molla Zäydin häqqidä qissä. 2 vols. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1981-91. [Stories about a famous trickster figure who lived in the Turfan region during the 19th century.]
Trebinjac, Sabine. “Musique Ouïgoure et collectes musicales en Chine.” Unpublished dissertation. Université Paris X, Nanterre, 1994.
—. Le Pouvoir en Chantant: l’art de fabriquer une musique chinoise. Nanterre: Société d’ethnologie, 2000.
—. “Quand les Ouïgours jouent et s’amusent.” Etudes mongoles et sibériennes, 30-31 (1999-2000): 125-135. [also in English in Garland Encyclopedia of Music, vol. 7.]
Tsai, Tsung-te. “The Music and Tradition of Qumul Muqam in Chinese Turkistan.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Maryland-Baltimore County, 1998.
Tursun, Abduväli. Khotän gilämchiliki. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1986. [Detailed discussion of carpet making in Khotan.]

Wei, Cuiyi and Karl W. Luckert. Uighur stories from along the Silk Road. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1998. [A collection of literary and oral stories arranged and annotated according to a theory of survivals and cultural evolution: each story is supposed to reflect a particular stage of socio-economic development.]

Zakharova, I. V. “Material’naia kultura uigurov Sovetskogo soiuza.” [Material Culture of the Uyghurs of the Soviet Union.] Sredneaziatskii etnograficheskii sbornik. Trudy instituta etnografii imeni Miklukho-Maklaia. Moscow, 1959, pp. 215-298.
Zhang Hengde. Xinjiang Weiwuer minjian huamao tu’anji; A Collection of the Xinjiang Uighur Folk Cap Designs. Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe, 1983.

Zhongguo jianzhu jishu fazhan zhongxin. Xinjiang Weiwuer jianzhu zhuangshi. [Xinjiang Uyghur Architectural Decoration.] Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe, 1985. [Brief text of 12 pages followed by 342 black and white photos of architectural elements.]

Zhou Ji. Zhongguo Xinjiang Weiwuer zu Yisilanjiao liyi yinyue. Taibei: Xinwenfeng chuban gongsi, 1999.

XIII) Anthropology, Cultural Analysis, Ethnography, Ethnicity, Ethnogenesis

Ethnic identity and ethnogenesis in Xinjiang have been a central focus of study for many scholars. Cesaro, Clark, Gladney, Hoppe, Roberts, Rudelson, Smith, and Svanberg offer nuanced insights into the complexities of ethnicity, but Gladney’s point that ethnic distinctions are not very important when Uyghurs move to Turkey should be extended to the situation in Xinjiang as well: ethnic identity is only contingently salient and much is missed by an exclusive focus on it. As with many of the literary studies above, ethnographers tend towards too much attention to ethnic differences. Ethnic identities are important modes of negotiating political and social organization and activities both on the interpersonal and on the level of state bureaucracy and public performances, but they offer only a partial perspective on social life. Life in Xinjiang involves more than deciphering the changing ways politics, culture, history, and rights are linked to ethnicity. Practices more strongly associated with gender, class, and religion—although these are also changing—are equally important, and here the works of Bellér-Hann and Hann are particularly valuable. Historical accounts of cultural practices can be found in the works on Chvyr, Iskhakov, Le Coq, Pelliot and Pevtsov.
Abramzon, S. M. “Kirgizskoe naselenie Sin’tszian-uigurskoi avtonomnoi oblasti Kitaiskoi narodnoi respubliki.” In: Trudy Kirgizskoi arkheologo-etnografi-cheskoi ekspeditsii, Vol. 2. Moscow: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1959, pp. 332-369. [Translated as: “Ethnographical Information on the Kirgiz Population in the Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Oblast of the Chinese People’s Republic, JPRS 24,572/1964: 1-54. One of the few studies of the Kyrgyz in Xinjiang; based mainly on emigré interviews.]
Bellér-Hann, Ildikó. “Script changes in Xinjiang”. In: Cultural change and continuity in Central Asia. Shirin Akiner, ed. London: Kegan Paul, 1991, pp. 71-83.
—. “Narratives and values: source materials for the study of popular culture in Xinjiang.” Inner Asia, 1/1 (1996): 89-100.
—. “The peasant condition in Xinjiang.” Journal of Peasant Studies, 25/1 (1997): 87-112
—. “Crafts, Entrepreneurship and Gendered Economic Relations in Southern Xinjiang in the Era of Socialist Commodity Economy.” Central Asian Survey, 17/4 (1998): 701-718.
—. “Work and gender among Uighur villagers in southern Xinjiang.” In: Les Ouïgours au XXème siècle. Cahiers d’Études sur la Méditerranée Orientale et le Monde Turco-Iranien, F. Aubin and J.-F. Besson, eds. 25 (1998) pp. 93-114.
—. “Women, Work and Procreation Beliefs in Two Muslim Communities.” In: Conceiving Persons: Ethno-graphies of Procreation, Substance and Personhood. P. Loizos and P. Heady, eds. London: Athlone, 1999, pp. 113-137.
—. The Written and the Spoken. Literacy and Oral Transmission among the Uyghur. ANOR 8. Berlin: Das Arabische Buch, 2000.
—, and Chris Hann. “Peasants and officials in Southern Xinjiang: subsistence, supervision and subversion.” Zeitschrift für Ethno-logie, 124 (2000): 1-32.
—. “Locked in Conflict. Parameters of Uyghur Identity, in China and in the Diaspora.” In: Cultural Persistence and Globalisation. Orientwissenschaftliche Hefte 2. Orientwissenschaftliches Zentrum: Halle, 2001, pp. 53-66.
—. “Solidarity and contest among Uyghur healers in Kazakhstan.” Inner Asia, 3 (2001): 73-98.
—. “‘Making the oil fragrant.’ Dealings with the supernatural among the Uighur in Xinjiang.” Asian Ethnicity, 2/1 (2001): 9-23.
—. “The hairbraiding ritual.” In: Aktual’nye problemy sovremennogo Uigurovedeniia. Ablet Kamalov, ed. Almaty: Gylym Press, 2002, pp. 180-192.
—. “Temperamental Neighbours: Constructing Boundaries in Xinjiang, Northwest China.” In: Imagined Difference: hatred and the construction of identity. Günther Schlee, ed. Münster-Hamburg-London: LIT Verlag, 2002, pp. 57-81.
—. “Geschlechtsspezifische Arbeitsteilung bei den Uiguren im Nordwesten Chinas.” In: Die geschlechtsspezifische Einbettung der Ökonomie. Empirische Unter-suchungen über Entwicklungs- und Transformationsprozesse (Market, Culture and Society 12). Gudrun Lachenmann and Petra Danecker, eds. Münster: LIT, 2002, pp. 321-346.
—. “Law and custom among the Uyghur in Xinjiang.” In: Central Asian Law: An Historical Overview. A Festschrift for the Ninetieth Birthday of Herbert Franke. Wallace Johnson and Irina F. Popova, eds. Topeka, Kansas: Society for Asian Legal History, 2004, pp. 173-194.
—. “Hair-Raising Stories: The Trickster in Uyghur Oral Tradition.” Asian Anthropology, 3 (2004): 13-38.

Cesàro, M. Cristina. “Consuming Identities: Food and resistance among the Uyghur in contemporary Xinjiang.” Inner Asia, 2/2 (2000): 225-238.
—. “Consuming identities: the culture and politics of food among the Uyghur in contemporary Xinjiang.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Kent at Canterbury, 2002.
Chvyr, Liudmilla Anatol’evna. “European reports about the Uighurs in the late 19th and early 20th century [sic].” Information Bulletin, International Association for the Study of the Cultures of Central Asia [Moscow], 15 (1989): 103-123.
—. Uigury Vostochnogo Turkestana i sosednie narody v kontse XIX-nachale XX v.: ocherki istoriko-kul’turnykh sviazei. [The Uyghurs of East Turkistan and Neighboring Peoples at the End of the 19th-Beginning of the 20th Centuries: Essays on Historical-Cultural Ties.] Moscow: “Nauka,” 1990.
—. “Notes on the ethnic self-awareness of the Uighur.” Anthro-pology and Archeology of Eurasia, 34/3 (1995/6): 48-67. [Originally in Russian as “Zametki ob etnicheskom samosoznanii uigurov,” Etnograficheskoe obozrenie, 3 (1994): 31-40.]
Clark, William. “Convergence or divergence: Uighur family change in Urumqi.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Washington, 1999.
—. “Childbearing Strategies among the Uighur Urban Educated Elite in Urumqi.” Asian Ethnicity, 2/2 (2001): 225-237.
—, and Kamalov, Ablet. “Uighur migration across Central Asian frontiers.” Central Asian Survey, 23/2 (2004): 167-183.

Geng Shimin, “On the Fusion of Nationalities in the Tarim Basin and the Formation of the Modern Uighur Nationality.” Central Asian Survey, 3/4 (1984): 1-14

Gladney, Dru C. “The Ethnogenesis of the Uighur.” Central Asian Survey, 9 (1990): 1-28.
—. “Representing Nationality in China: Refiguring Majority/Minority Identities.” Journal of Asian Studies, 53/1 (1994): 92-123.
—. “Relational Alterity: Constructing Dungan (Hui), Uygur, and Kazakh Identities Across China, Central Asia, and Turkey.” History and Anthropology, 9/2 (1996): 445-477.
—. Dislocating China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Hann, Chris M. “Ethnic games in Xinjiang: anthropological approaches.” In: Cultural Change and Continuity in Central Asia. Shirin Akiner, ed. London: Kegan Paul International, pp. 218-36.
—. “Peasants in an era of freedom: property and market economy in southern Xinjiang.” Inner Asia, 1/2 (1999): 195-219.
Häbibulla, Abdurähim. Uyghur Etnografiyisi. Ürümchi, 1993.
Hoppe, Thomas. Die ethnischen Gruppen Xinjiangs: Kulturunterschiede und interethnische Beziehungen. Hamburg, Institut für Asienkunde, 1995.
—. “An Essay on Reproduction: The Example of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region.” In: Learning from China?: Environment and Development in Third World Countries. Bernhard Glaeser, ed. London: Allen and Unwin, 1987, pp. 56-84.
Iskhakov, Gegel’ M. [Wedding ceremonies of the Uyghurs of east Turkestan ….]. Trudy Instituta istorii, arkheologii i etnografii (Alma-Ata), 18 (1963): 87-102.
—. Ethnograficheskoe izuchenie uigurov Vostochnogo Turkestana russkimi puteshestvennikami vtoroi poloviny XIX veka. [The Ethnographic Study of the Uyghurs of East Turkistan by Russian Travelers in the Second Half of the 19th Century.] Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1975.

Le Coq, Albert von. “Die Abdal.” Bässler-Archiv, 2/5-6 (1912): 221-234.

Li, Sheng and Anwar Ablimit. “Summary of Research on the Racial and Ethnic Origins of China’s Xinjiang Uighur Ethnic Group.” In: Racial identities in East Asia, Barry Sautman, ed. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 1995, pp. 601-636.

Light, Nathan. “Slippery Paths: The Performance and Canonization of Turkic Literature and Uyghur Muqam Song in Islam and Modernity.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University, 1998.

Pelliot, Paul. “Les Âbdâl de Païnâp.” Journal Asiatique, 9 (1907): 115-139.

Pevtsov, M. V. “An ethnographic sketch of Kashgariya.” E. M. Shimkin, trans. and ed. Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society, 12/2 (1981): 365-440.

Roberts, Sean R. “Negotiating locality, Islam, and national culture in a changing borderlands: the revival of the Mäshräp ritual among young Uighur men in the Ili valley.” Central Asian survey, 17/4 (1998): 673-99.
—. “The Uighurs of the Kazakstan Borderlands: Migration and the Nation.” Nationalities Papers, 26/3 (1998): 511-530.
—. “Uyghur neighborhoods and nationalisms in the former Sino-Soviet borderland: an historical ethnography of a stateless nation on the margins of modernity.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Southern California, 2003.
—. “Toasting Uyghurstan: Negotiating Stateless Nationalism in Transnational Ritual Space.” In: Contesting rituals: Islam and practices of identity-making. Pamela J. Stewart and Andrew Strathern, eds. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 2005.

Rudelson, Justin Jon. Oasis Identities: Uyghur Nationalism along China’s Silk Road. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
—. “Uighur Historiography and Uighur Ethnic Nationalism.” In: Ethnicity, Minorities and Cultural Encounters. Ingvar Svanberg, ed. Uppsala Multiethnic Papers 25. Uppsala: Centre for Multiethnic Research, 1991, pp. 63-82.
Smith, Joanne. “Changing Uyghur identities in Xinjiang in the 1990s.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Leeds, 1999.
—. “Four generations of Uyghurs: the shift towards ethno-political ideologies among Xinjiang’s youth.” Inner Asia, 2/2 (2000): 195-224.
—. “Making Culture Matter: Symbolic, Spatial, and Social Boundaries Between Uyghurs and Han Chinese.” Asian Ethnicity, 3/2 (2002): 153-74.

Svanberg, Ingvar. “The Loplyks: A Vanishing Fishing and Gathering Culture in Xinjiang.” Svenska Forskningsinstitutet i Istanbul. Meddelanden, 12 (1987): 57–81.
—. “Xinjiang Kazak Adoption Practices.” Central Asiatic Journal, 38/2 (1994): 235-243.
—. “Ethnic Categorizations and Cultural Diversity in Xinjiang: The Dolans along the Yarkand River.” Central Asiatic Journal, 40/2 (1996): 260-282.

XIV) Religion: Islam, Khwâja Rule, Sufism, Shamanism

Religious practices and the history and politics of religion in the region now called Xinjiang offer many aspects and sources for study. Studies of religious practices were limited by PRC government policies until recently, but many earlier officials, ethnographers and explorers made detailed reports about religion. Most of the historical and ethnographic items included above mention religion, and the Islamic primary sources are particularly important for these topics as Islam became increasingly important in the social and political lives of Turkic speakers over the past 500 years. In addition to items listed below, the works of Bellér-Hann on healing practices, the historical studies by Fletcher and Hartmann, and the collections of folklore by Katanov, Pantusov, and Radlov are particularly rich sources for religious ideas and practices.
Arik, Kagan. “A native taxonomy of healing among the Xinjiang Kazaks.” Anthropology of Consciousness, 10/4 (1999): 8-23.
—. “Shamanism, culture and the Xinjiang Kazak: a native narrative of identity.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Washington, 1999.

Basilov, Vladimir N. Shamanstvo u narodov Srednei Azii i Kazakhstana. [Shamanism among the Peoples of Central Asia and Kazakhstan.] Moscow: “Nauka,” 1992.

Dawut, Rahilä. Uyghur Mazarläri. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 2001. [A study of mazar tombs and religious practices linked to them. Also published in Chinese as: Reyila Dawuti. Weiwuerzu mazha wenhua yanjiu. Xinjiang daxue chubanshe, 2001.]

DeWeese, Devin. “Islam and the Legacy of Sovietology: A Review Essay on Yaacov Ro’i’s Islam in the Soviet Union.” Journal of Islamic Studies, 13/3 (2002): 298-330. [Good review of the political and ethnocentric biases introduced into Islamic studies.]

Du Shaoyuan. “Pratiques chamaniques des Ouïgours du Xinjiang.” Etudes mongoles et sibériennes, 26 (1995): 41-62.

Grenard, F. “Spécimens de la littérature moderne du Turkestan chinois.” Journal Asiatique, 9/13 (1899): 304-46. [Works on Ya‘qûb Beg.]
—. “La légende de Satok Boghra Khan et l’histoire.” Journal Asiatique, 9/15 (1900): 5-79.

Hamada Masami. “Islamic Saints and their Mausoleums.” Acta Asiatica, 34 (1978): 79-105.
—. “De l’autorité religieuse au pouvoir politique: la révolte de Kûca et Khwâja Râshidîn.” In: Naqshbandis: cheminements et situation actuelle d’un ordre mystique musulman. Marc Gaborieau, Alexandre Popovic and Thierry Zarcone, eds. Istanbul-Paris: Editions Isis, 1990, pp. 455-490.

Hartmann, Martin. Der Islamische Orient. Vols. VI-X: Ein Heiligenstaat im Islam: Das Ende der Caghataiden und die Herrschaft der Chojas in Kašgarien. Berlin: Wolf Peiser Verlag, 1905, pp. 195-374.

Jarring, Gunnar. “The Ordam-padishah-system of Eastern Turkistan Shrines.” Geografiska Annaler. Vol. 17, Supplement: Hyllningsskrift Tillagnad Sven Hedin (1935), pp. 348-354.
—. Literary texts from Kashghar. Acta Regiae Societatis Humaniorum Litterarum Lundensis 74. Lund: C. W. K. Gleerup, 1980. [Contents: Qisas ul-anbiya; Rahat ul-qulub; The Tazkirah of Abu Nasr Samani; Gharip Sannam Shah.]
—. Dervish and Qalandar: Texts from Kashgar. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1987.
—. Culture Clash in Central Asia: Islamic views on Chinese theatre: Eastern Turki texts edited with translations, notes and vocabulary. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1991.
Kim, Hodong. “The Cult of Saints in Eastern Turkestan — The Case of Alp Ata in Turfan.” Proceedings of the 35th Permanent International Altaistic Conference. Taipei: 1992, pp. 199-226.
Lovadina, Michela. Manchu Shamanic Material Rediscovered; A Photographic Documentation from the 1932 Sven Hedin Expedition. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1998.
Malov, Sergei Efimovich. “Shamanskii kamen’ i ad u tiurkov Zapadnogo Kitaia.” [The Shaman’s Stone and Hell among the Turks of Western China.] Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1947, No. 1: 151-160.
—. “Shamanstvo u sartov Vostochnago Turkestana.” [Shaman-ism among the Sarts of East Turkistan.] Sbornik Muzeia antro-pologii i etnografii (Leningrad), 5/1 (1917-25): 1-16.

Pang, Tatjana A. „Der Schamanenhof:” Die sibemandschurische Handschrift ‘Saman kuwaran-i bithe’ aus der Sammlung N. Krotkov. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1992.

Pantusov, N. N. “Taranchinskie bakshi; peri uinatmak [oynatmaq].” [The Taranchi bakshi; peri uinatmak (oynatmaq).] Izvestiia Turke-stanskago Otdela Imperatorskago russkago geograficheskago ob-shchestva, 6 (1907): 37-91.

Penkala-Gawecka, Danuta. [Chosen by spirits or how to become a shaman: the example of a Uighur shaman woman from Kazakhstan.] Lud; organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Ludoznawczego, 85 (2001): 153-91. [In Polish with English summary. This reference from RLG’s Eureka Anthropology Plus did not give original title.]

Qi Cheshan. “Contemporary Shamans and the ‘Shaman’s Handbook’ of the Sibe.” Shaman. Journal of the International Society for Shamanistic Research, 5/1 (1997). [Rachel Harris, trans.]

Rabghuzi. Qissäsul änbiya. Kashgar: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988. [Important Turkic collection of legends tales by 14th century CE author. Based on a lithographed edition published in Tashkent in 1895.]

Schwarz, Henry G. “The Khwâjas of Eastern Turkestan.” Central Asiatic Journal, 20 (1976): 266-96.

Shaw, Robert Barkley. “The History of the Khôjas of Eastern Turkestan, summarized from the Tazkira-i Khwâjagân of Muhammad Sadiq Kashgari.” Ed. N. Elias. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal; Supplement, LXVI/1 (1897).

Shinmen, Yasushi. “Shinkyo musulimu hanran (1931-34) to himitsu soshiki” [The Xinjiang Muslim rebellion (1931-34) and secret societies]. Shigaku Zasshi, 99/12 (1990): 1-42.

Stary, Giovanni. Das „Schamanenbuch” der Sibe-Mandschuren. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1992.

Togan, Isenbike. “Islam in a Changing Society: The Khojas of Eastern Turkistan.” In: Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of Identity and Change. Jo-Ann Gross, ed. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992, pp. 134-148.
—. “The Khafi, Jahri Controversy in Central Asia Revisited.” In Naqshbandis in western and central Asia: change and continuity. Elisabeth Özdalga, ed. Istanbul: Svenska forskningsinstitutet Istanbul, 1999, pp. 17-46.

Saguchi Tôru. “The Revival of the White Mountain Khojas, 1760-1820 (from Sarimsaq to Jihangir).” Acta Asiatica, 14 (1968): 7-20.

Wang, Jianxin. Uyghur education and social order: the role of Islamic leadership in the Turpan basin. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 2004. [Extensive and detaild fieldwork account of religious practices.]

Wei Liangtao. “An illusion in the history of the Western Region. The ‘Holy State of Islam’ or the ‘Khoja period.’” Social Sciences in China, 14/3 (1993): 126-140. [Carelessly edited translation of a useful discussion of the sources and issues of Khwâja history.]

Zarcone, Thierry. “Quand le saint légitime le politique: le mausolée de Afaq Khwaja à Kashgar.” Central Asian Survey, 18/2 (1999), 225-241.
—, A. Buehler and E. Isin, eds. Sufi Saints and Heroes on the Silk Road. Special issue of Journal of the History of Sufism, 3 (2001-2002). Paris: Jean Maisonneuve, Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient, 2003. Contents:
Hamada Masami. “Introduction. Les Mausolées du bassin du Tarim: deux millénaires d’histoire.”
Karl Reichl. “Hero and Saint: Islamic Elements in Uighur Oral Epics.”
Isenbike Togan. “Differences in Ideology and Practice: the Case of the Black and White Mountains Faction.”
Sawada Minoru. “Fieldworks at Muslim Mausoleum in the Tarim Basin.”
Hamada Masami. “Le Mausolée de Satuq Bughra Khan à Artush.”
Sawada Minoru. “The System of Ordam-Padishâh (Oase of Yangi Hisar).”
Jean-Paul Loubes. “The ‘Rectification’ of Documents of Architecture: The Case of the Aba Khoja Sufi Complex in Kashghar.”
Thierry Zarcone. “Le Culte des saints au Xinjiang (de 1911 à nos jours).”
N. Pantusov. “Le Mazâr de Mavlânâ Yusuf Sakakî (ou Shakakî).”
N. Pantusov. “Les Mausolées musulmans de la ville de Uch-Turfan et de ses environs en territoire chinois.”

XV) Ecology, Economics, Geography, Pastoralism

Economics and geography have been topics of interest to imperial powers involved Eastern Turkistan since the Manchu conquest in 1758, or even before if Miyawaki Junko is correct in seeing Junghar history as driven in part by a quest for economic control over the Tarim agricultural regions. The study of the cultural and ecological bases of pastoral nomadism has long fascinated scholars of Eurasia, and motivated analysis of the ecological basis of political and military expansion, as in Owen Lattimore’s Inner Asian Frontiers of China (N.Y., 1940). Many of the historical works listed above follow up these issues in more detail, as well as the studies on Qazaqs [Kazakhs] by Benson, Svanberg, Hoppe and Light.
Eastern Turkistan’s trade ties with nearby regions and its participation in “Silk Road” trade more generally have been another focus of scholarly attention. Millward’s article on the silk-horse trade and Beyond the Pass (listed in “world history” above) and Saguchi’s article on Kokand trade provide excellent introductions. Fletcher’s article in Cambridge History of China also discusses trade ties. The expedition reports and articles by Roberts, Toops and Wiemer in the volume edited by Starr listed above are also important discussions of trade and economics.
Banks, Tony J. “Pastoral land tenure reform and resource management in northern Xinjiang: a new institutional economics perspective.” Nomadic Peoples, 1/2 (1997): 55-76.
—. “State, Community and Common Property in Xinjiang: Synergy or Strife?” Development Policy Review, 17/3 (1999): 293-313.
—. “Property Rights And The Environment In Pastoral China: Evidence From The Field.” Development and Change [Great Britain], 32/4 (2001): 717-740. [Describes and explains pastoral tenure arrangements and notes continuing collective action and yet finds no clear “tragedy of the commons.” Rather institutional arrangements appear suited to cultural ecology.]
Chaudhuri, Debasish. “A Survey of the Economic Situation in Xinjiang and its Role in the Twenty-first Century.” China Report, 41/1 (2005): 1-28.
Dreyer, June Teufel. “Ethnicity and economic development in Xinjiang.” Inner Asia, 2/2 (2000): 137-154.
Kazak, Fuad. Osttürkistan zwischen den grossmächten; ein Beitrag zur Wirtschaftskunde Ostturkistans. Königsberg (Pr.); Berlin: Ost-Europa Verlag, 1937.
Mei Zhang. “Effect of privatisation policies on rural women’s labour and property rights in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang.” In: Society and Culture. Culture and Environment in Inner Asia, Vol. 2. Cambridge: White Horse Press, 1996, pp. 61-96.
Millward, James A. “The Qing Silk-Horse Trade with the Qazaqs in Yili and Tarbaghatai, 1758-1853.” Central and Inner Asian Studies, 7 (1993): 1-41.
Saguchi Tôru. “The Eastern Trade of the Khoqand Khanate.” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Tôyô Bunko, 24 (1965): 47-114.
Toops, Stanley. “Tourism and Turpan: the power of place in Inner Asia/Outer China.” Central Asian Survey, 18/3 (1999): 303-318.
—. “Tourism in Xinjiang, China,” Journal of Cultural Geography, 12/2 (1992): 19-34.
—. “Xinjiang’s Handicraft Industry,” Annals of Tourism Research, 20 (1993): 88-106.
—. “The population landscape of Xinjiang/East Turkestan.” Inner Asia, 2/2 (2000): 155-170.

Tsui Yenhu. “Development of social organisations in the pastoral areas of north Xinjiang and their relationship with the environment.” In Society and Culture. Culture and Environment in Inner Asia. Vol. 2. Cambridge: White Horse Press, 1996, pp. 205-230.

Warikoo, K. B. “Chinese Turkestan During the Nineteenth Century: A Socio-Economic Study.” Central Asian Survey, 4/3 (1985): 75-114.

Weggel, Oskar. Xinjiang, Sinkiang: das zentralasiatische China; eine Landeskunde. Hamburg: Institut für Asienkunde, 1987.

Wiens, Herold J. “The Historical and Geographical Role of Urumchi, Capital of Chinese Central Asia.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 53/4 (1963): 441-464.

—. “Change in the Ethnography and Land Use of the Ili Valley and Region, Chinese Turkestan.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 59/4 (1969): 753-775.
—. “Cultivation Development and Expansion in China’s Colonial Realm in Central Asia.” The Journal of Asian Studies, 26/1 (1966): 67-88.

Yung, Peter [Weng Weiquan]. Bazaars of Chinese Turkestan: life and trade along the old Silk Road. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1997. [Photographs of bazaar life.]

XVI) Analyses of Social Policies, Politics, Strategic Issues and Current Events

Recent political analyses have moved somewhat beyond the collation and analysis of press reports that was the dominant mode for the study of Communist China from the 1950s through the 1980s. Now that fieldwork and archival research are more feasible, more sophisticated studies are being published, although analysis of news and propaganda reports continues. Becquelin, Bovingdon, Dwyer and Millward offer the best insights into present conditions. Most of the articles in the 1998 CEMOTI issue and in Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland (Starr, ed.) are also relevant here. Dillon’s volume is a useful but uncritical analysis of Chinese studies on Islamic political movements.

Bachman, David. “Making Xinjiang Safe for the Han? Contradictions and Ironies of Chinese Governance in China’s Northwest.” In: Governing China’s Multiethnic Frontiers. Morris Rossabi, ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004.

Baranovitch, Nimrod. “From the Margins to the Centre: The Uyghur Challenge in Beijing.” China Quarterly, 175 (Sept. 2003): 726-751.

Becquelin, Nicolas. “China’s domestic and foreign policy in the region since the break-up of the Soviet Union: a new Xinjiang for a new Central Asia”. China Perspectives (Hong Kong), 15 (Jan.-Feb. 1998): 10-21.
—. “Xinjiang In The Nineties.” China Journal [Australia], 44 (2000): 65-91. [Discusses causes of local political protests.]
—. “Staged development in Xinjiang.” China Quarterly, 178 (June 2004): 358-378. [Analyzes the changes in government efforts to integrate Xinjiang into the heartland, and the strategies for placating ethno-nationalism.]

Bovingdon, Gardner. “From Qumulluq to Uyghur: The Role of Education in the Development of a Pan-Uyghur Identity.” Journal of Central Asian Studies, 3/1 (Fall-Winter 1998): 19-29.
—. “Strangers in their own land: the politics of Uyghur identity in Chinese Central Asia.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Cornell University, 2002.
—. Autonomy in Xinjiang: Han Nationalist Imperatives and Uyghur Discontent. Washington, D.C.: East-West Center, 2004.
—. “Heteronomy and Its Discontents: ‘Minzu Regional Autonomy’ in Xinjiang.” In: Governing China’s Multiethnic Frontiers. Morris Rossabi, ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004.
—. “The Not-So-Silent Majority: Uyghur Resistance to Han Rule in Xinjiang”. Modern China, 28/1 (2002): 39-78
Chang Wei-penn, trans. “L’économie domaniale du canton de Xiaheleke, zone d’habitat uygur au Xinjiang, avant les reformes démocratiques.” Récherches sur l’Asie de l’est. 2 (April 1981). La Chine: la question des minorités en Chine: orientations générales. Charles Le Blanc and Denise Helly, eds. Montreal: Centre d’études de l’Asie de l’Est, pp. 30-61. [Translation of a study of “feudalism” in Xiahekele: Zhongguo ke xue yuan. Xinjiang Weiwuer Zizhiqu Moyu xian Xiaheleke xiang de fengjian zhuangyuan. Beijing, 1964.]
—, and Lucien Drivod. “L’économie domaniale chez les Uygurs avant 1949 et la transformation socialiste des années 1950.” Loc. cit., pp. 62-75. [Analysis of the study.]

Christoffersen, Gaye. “Xinjiang and the Great Islamic Circle: The Impact of Transnational Forces on Chinese Regional Economic Planning.” China Quarterly, 133 (Mar. 1993): 130-151.

Dillon, Michael. Xinjiang: ethnicity, separatism and control in Chinese Central Asia. Durham: East Asian Studies, University of Durham, 1995.
—. Xinjiang — China’s Muslim Far Northwest. London: Routledge-Curzon, 2004. [Analysis of supposed Islamicist movements relying on Chinese sources by Xu Yuqi, Yang Faren et al, and Zhang Yuxi.]

Dreyer, June Teufel. “The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region at Thirty: A Report Card.” Asian Survey, 26/7 (1986): 721-744.

Dwyer, Arienne. The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy and Political Discourse. Policy Studies 15. Washington: East-West Center, 2005.

Fu Jen-kun. Sin’tszian-Uigurskii vopros i ego razvitie. [The Xinjiang-Uyghur Question and Its Development.] Almaty: Tsentr sravnitel’nogo izucheniia regionov g. Almaty, 2001.

Harris, Lillian Craig. “Xinjiang, Central Asia and the Implications for China’s Policy in the Islamic World.” China Quarterly, 133 (Mar., 1993): 111-129.

Helly, Denise. “Le Parti communiste chinois et la question ethnique: le cas du Xinjiang, 1920-1959.” Récherches sur l’Asie de l’est. 2 (April 1981). La Chine: la question des minorités en Chine: orientations générales. Charles Le Blanc and Denise Helly, eds. Montreal: Centre d’études de l’Asie de l’Est, pp. 129-235.
—. “Le Parti communiste chinois et la question ethnique: le cas des Uygurs du Xinjiang, 1949-1960.” Études chinoises (Paris), 2 (1983): 3-35.

Mackerras, Colin. “Han-Muslim and Intra-Muslim Social Relations in Northwestern China.” In: Nationalism and Ethnoregional Identities in China. William Safran, ed. London: Frank Cass, 1998: 28-46.
—. “Xinjiang at the turn of the century: the causes of separatism.” Central Asian Survey, 20/3 (2001): 289-303.

McMillen, Donald H. Chinese policy and power in Xinjiang, 1949-1977. Boulder: Westview Press, 1979.

Millward, James A. Violent Separatism in Xinjiang: A Critical Assessment. Policy Studies, No. 6. Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington, 2004.

Sautman, Barry. “Is Xinjiang an internal colony?” Inner Asia, 2/2 (2000): 239-71.

Seymour, James D. “Xinjiang’s production and construction corps, and the sinification of Eastern Turkestan.” Inner Asia, 2/2 (2000): 171-193.

Toops, Stanley. “Recent Uygur Leaders In Xinjiang.” Central Asian Survey, 11/2 (1992): 77-99.

White, Lynn T., III. “The Road to Urumchi: Approved Institutions in Search of Attainable Goals during Pre-1968 Rustication from Shanghai.” China Quarterly, 79 (1979): 481-511.

Zhao, Yueyao. “Pivot or Periphery? Xinjiang’s Regional Development.” Asian Ethnicity, 2/2 (2001): 197-224.

About the Author

From 2003-2005 Nathan Light was Visting Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Toledo (Ohio, USA). His Indiana University Ph.D. dissertation, “Slippery Paths: The Performance and Canonization of Turkic Literature and Uyghur Muqam Song in Islam and Modernity,” is available online at his extensive website focussing on Uyghurs and Kazakhs <>. He is currently working on a book, tentatively titled From Stone Inscriptions to Sufi Classicism: An Interpretive History of Eastern Turkic Literature. He may be contacted at nlight@UTNet.UToledo.Edu.